Tolyatti (also spelled Toliatti, Toliati, Tolyati) is the second largest city of Samara region. It is the largest city in Russia which is not the capital of any of the region.
Tolyatti has the population of about 719,600 (2012), land area - 315 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 8482; the postal codes - 445000-445xxx.
The official City Day of Tolyatti is celebrated on the first Sunday of June. The climate of the territory is of continental type and considerably milder due to Kyubyshev water reservoir: the average temperature in January is 11,7 degrees Celsius below zero and the average temperature in July is 20 degrees Celsius above zero.
Modern history of Tolyatti is only 50 years, although it was specifically constructed: the city was rebuilt in its new place almost absolutely like the old city. Nevertheless Tolyatti is included into the list of historical cities of Russia.
The original architecture of the old city is remained only in the complex of hospital buildings which were under the flood level. Every district is unique in its architecture and unlike the rest. A lot of private wooden houses were transferred from the old city and they are still remained in the Central district.
The town was founded in 1737 by Vasily Tatishev as a fortress for defending the Russian lands from nomads’ raids. Within 100 years starting in the 19th till the early 20th centuries the population of the town didn’t change: a little over 6,000 people inhabited the settlement.
By the 1950s, there were about 12,000 people in the town. When Zhigulyovskaya hydro power station and Kyubyshev water reservoir were constructed, almost the whole town was transferred to a new place.
In 1966, the construction of the largest in the USSR the Volga automobile-building plant began in the city. From October 1966 till September 1967, the population of the city grew twice, in September 1967, almost 162,000 people lived in the city. On August, 28th, 1964, the city was renamed after the Italian communist Palmiro Tolyatti.
Present day Tolyatti is a large industrial and economic center playing an important role in the country and the region. The main plant of the city is “AVTOVAZ”. There is also an automobile plant of “GM-AVTOVAZ” company and a lot of plants producing various parts and materials for automobiles.
Among the other plants of Tolyatti are cement machine-building, ship-repairing, transformer, fire equipment, protecting coatings and plastic. Chemical industry is well developed in Tolyatti: the largest in the world ammonia producer “TolyattiAzot” is located in the city.
The plant was constructed in Soviet times with the help of the American billionaire Armand Hammer who favored the USSR. The plant delivers its product by the unique ammonia pipeline “Tolyatti-Odessa”.
The federal highway M5 crosses Tolyatti connecting central regions of the European part of Russia with its eastern parts: Volga region, Ural, Siberia and the Far East.
The distance from Tolyatti to Samara is 88 km, to Moscow - 985 km, to Saint-Petersburg - 1,702 km. Only 2 trains leave the city: “Tolyatti-Moscow” and “Saratov-Tolyatti”. The transit trains do not pass the city on their ways.
The total number of Tolyatti historical and cultural monuments is 167. These are the monuments of city-building and memorial boards. The monuments of city-building are represented by separate objects as well as whole complexes. These are the buildings remained from flooded Stavropol (previous name of the city) and transferred to the new city as well as those built in the 50s of the 20th century.
Over a half of monuments are located in the Central district of the city. On Freedom Square there is the Eternal Fire and the Glory Obelisk in memory of heroes-townsmen perished during the World War II.
Varvarinskaya church built in 1846 in the settlement of Fyodorovka is of cultural and historical importance. Among the outstanding places of interest there is the monumental and decorative composition “Prometheus” on the House of Culture building “Tolyatti”.
New monuments began to appear lately: to the founder of the city V.N.Tatishev - on the Volga bank when the city was 260, the sculpture “Sorrowful Angel” to the victims of political repressions, the sculpture to the dog “Verny”, the sculpture to Nikolai Chodotvorets and a lot of others.
Also Russian ufologists consider Tolyatti to be one of the most anomalous places in Russia. The number of unexplained facts is dozens times higher than the average one.