Tatarstan Republic overview
Tatarstan Republic (also known as Tataristan, Tataria, Tatariya) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation. Tatarstan is the part of Volga Federal District.
The capital city and administrative center of Tatarstan is Kazan. The region is situated in the center of East European Plain (about 800 km east of Moscow).
The republic lies between two rivers: the Volga and the Kama. It is extending to the Ural mountains. Main natural resources of Tatarstan are oil and natural gas.
Tatarstan Republic population - 3,822,000 (2012); land area - 67,847 sq. km.
Tatarstan Republic facts
The climate of Tatarstan Republic is of moderate continental type, with warm summers and moderate cold winters. The average temperature in January (the coldest month) is 16 degrees Celsius below zero, in July (the hottest month) - 25 degrees C above zero.
Main natural resource is oil. The republic possesses 800 million tons of extracted oil; the resource in forecast is over 1 bln tons. 127 oil deposits are found in the region, they unite over 300 oil-fields.
108 coal-fields have been found in Tatarstan. There are also limestone deposits, sands, clay for brick production, stone, gypsum and peat.
The largest rivers are the Volga and the Kama as well as 2 Kama tributaries - the Vyatka and the Belaya. Main water resources are concentrated in 2 water reservoirs - Kuybyshevsky and Nizhnekamsky. Mineral water resources are large enough.
According to the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan, the Tatar and the Russian languages have equal rights throughout the republic. Two religions are the mostly spread in the Republic of Tatarstan: Islam and Orthodox Christianity.
Historical and geographical factors called forth location of Tatarstan at the junction of 2 large civilizations: eastern and western which explains the variety of cultural treasures.
Tatarstan Republic nature
Tataria republic landscape
Tatarstan Republic history
The earliest state on the territory of present Tatarstan Republic was Volga Bulgaria state (700-1238). It was an advanced state trading with Inner Eurasia, Middle East and Baltic regions. Volga Bulgaria state was fighting for its independence with Khazars, Kievan Rus and Kipchaks states. In 922, Islam religion appeared in Volga Bulgaria with the help of Baghdad missionaries.
At the end of 1230s, Volga Bulgaria was conquered by Mongol prince Batu Khanarmies. The region received independence again in 1430s with the forming of Kazan Khanate state with capital in Kazan city. Kazan Khanate was conquered by the army of the Russian Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible in 1550s. Kazan city was taken in 1552.
A lot of people were converted to Christianity. Orthodox churches and cathedrals were built in Kazan. Almost all mosques of the city and the whole region were destroyed. The prohibition to build mosques was lifted only in the 18th century by Catherine II and first mosque was built in 1766-1770.
In 1918-1920, during the Russian Civil War there was an attempt to establish an independent Tatar republic but Bolsheviks could take the republic under control. In 1920, Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established.
In 1992, on a referendum, the majority of Tatarstan population voted for independence from Russia. In 1994, the mutual Treaty between the Russian Federation and Republic of Tatarstan was signed.
Tataria Republic scenery
Tatarstan republic scenery
Tatarstan Republic economics
Tatarstan is one of the most developed economical regions in Russia. The republic is located in the middle of the large industrial area of Russia, at the important ways junction connecting east and west, north and south of the state. The republic possesses rich natural deposits, powerful industry, highly intellectual and qualified labor force.
The industry of Tatarstan is defined by fuel and oil-chemical industries (oil extracting, synthetic rubber, tyre, polyethylene production as well as wide range of oil-processing product), large machine-building plants (heavy trucks, helicopters, planes and plane engines, compressors and oil and gas pumping equipment, river and sea ships and cars) as well as electrical and radio gadget building.
Annually about 32 million tons of oil is extracted in the republic. In 2009, the company “Kamaz” occupied 56,5% of the Russian cargo automobile market (weighing over 14 tons). Every second truck produced in Russia and CIS is an automobile “Kamaz”.
About 24% of all Russian tractors are produced in Tatarstan. 60% of Russian polystirol and about a half of polyethylene, over 40% of synthetic rubber and 1/3 of tyres are produced in the region.
Commercial and economical ties of Tatarstan with foreign countries are of great importance for the economics of the republic - over 120 countries have commercial activities with Tatarstan. In 2009, the foreign trade turnover was $13,5 bln ($11,7 bln - the export and $1,8 bln - the import).
Tatarstan Russia village house
Tatarstan Republic features
Kazan Kremlin is one of the vivid examples of the state cultural policy. During the celebration of 1000th anniversary of Kazan, thousands of inhabitants of Tatarstan Republic and guests from abroad witnessed ceremonial opening of Kul-Sharif mosque and Annunciation church symbolizing co-existence of the two main religions in the republic - Islam and Christianity.
The culture of Tatarstan presenting rich traditions of the peoples inhabiting the republic at the same time shows common human treasures and is a part of the world cultural heritage.
In 2000, the historical and cultural area of the Kazan Kremlin was included into the list of World UNESCO heritage. Bolgarsky state historical and architectural reserve museum and Sviyazhsky historical and architectural, natural and landscape museum are nominated into this list too.
Tatar national holiday Sabantuy presenting a live folk tradition is also nominated into this list. Tatar literature has a 1000 year-old history. One of the earliest written monuments of the Tatar-Bulgar history is Kul Gali’s poem “Ballad about Yusuf”. This masterpiece dates back to 1212.
The lives of outstanding people are linked with Tatarstan: singer Fyodor Shalyapin, writers Leo Tolstoy, Sergey Aksakov, Maxim Gorky and Vasily Aksyonov, poets Yevgeny Boratynsky, Gavriyil Derzhavin, Marina Tsvetayeva and Nikolai Zabolotsky, painters Ivan Shishkin and Nikolai Feshin.
Well-known are such brands of Tatarstan as: Shalyapin International opera festival, Nuriyev International ballet festival, Kazan International Moslem film festival “Golden Minbar”, International festival of Turkish peoples’ theaters “Nauruz”, International festival of modern music “Europe-Asia” and others.