Perm region overview
Perm krai (region) (also spelled Permsky, Permskiy) is located in the east of the Russian plain, in the junction of Europe and Asia in Volga Federal District. Administrative center of the region is Perm city.
Perm region population - 2,634,000 (2012); land area - 160,236 sq. km.
Perm region facts
The territory of Perm region is located in the basin of the Kama River, which provides the exit to 5 seas (the Caspian, Azov, Black, Baltic, and White). The length from north to south is 645 km, form west to east - 417.5 km.
The climate of the area is of moderate continental type. Winters are long and snowy. The average temperature in January is 18,5 in the north-east of the region and 15 degrees Celsius below zero in the south-west. The temperature minimum was 53 degrees C below zero (in the north of the region).
The largest cities are Perm (1,001,000), Bereznyaky (154,000), Solikamsk (97,000) and Chaikovsky (82,000). About 80 percent of the region population is urban.
Perm region was founded on October 3, 1938. It is divided into 36 administrative districts, 25 towns (13 of regional submission), 56 town settlements and 516 villages.
Perm region nature
Perm region history
For the first time the word “perm” was mentioned in the outstanding monument of ancient Russia in the early 12th century “Povest vremennykh let”.
The first Russian expeditions to the Urals took place to the north of the Kama basin, probably the word “perm” meant the population of Vychegodsky basin, the ancestors of the Komi-Erzya.
Later in Russian chronicles this territory was called Perm the Old, Perm Vychegodskaya. As the Russians got acquainted with the indigenous population of the Kamsky basin, the name “perm” meant these territories as well.
Novgorod merchants were the first ones to get interested in Perm land. But soon they got rivals. In the 14th - the first half of the 15th centuries, Muscovite principality persistently encroached on the lands in the upper Kama.
More Historical Facts…
Muscovite princes advance to the north-east was a part of the struggle for creating united Russian state. The first Russian settlements were founded in Great Perm in the early 15th century.
The territory of Great Perm was one of the first to finally join the Russian state and it was an important historical event. Russian state got new chances to widen its territories in the east and to assimilate new natural resources.
In the 17th century, the town of Sol Kamskaya (Solikamsk) became an important strong point in military, economical and cultural assimilating the Middle Urals, in the south-east newly constructed town of Kungur was such a point. In the first quarter of the 18th century, about 46,000 people lived on the territory of Great Perm, 64,5% of them were Russians.
To provide more convenient governance of the regions Peter I declared gubernia governance in 1708. Till 1727, all the middle Urals were a part of Siberian gubernia with the center in Tobolsk, then Perm lands were a part of Kazan gubernia, and, from 1781, by Catherine II order, Perm region ruled by governor-general was formed.
By Emperor Paul I order of December 12, 1796, the division into gubernias and districts was restored. The ancient name of the Upper Kama lands was inherited from Great Perm to Perm gubernia.
This region remained the main district of mining industry in Russia till the end of the 19th century. There were over 110 mining plants where cast iron, steel and iron were melted. For a long time the area was the main provider of copper.
Salt production was developed and enlarged its output which made 1/4 of all the output in Russia. Salt production development, Ural railway construction and its operating stimulated coal mining (Kizelovsky basin).
Eastern Ural is the largest area of platinum deposits. By the end of the 19th century, gold mining grew twice as much, various deposits were extracted. The industrial revolution was over at mining plants. Foreign investments grew immensely. By the end of the 19th century, most of metallurgical plants were reorganized into machine-building ones.
The 20th century was marked by intense growth of Perm region industry: machine-building structure became much more complicated and rich (during the World War II over 120 plants were evacuated to the Western Ural).
Such branches of industry as chemical, non-ferrous metallurgy, oil-processing developed intensely; oil deposits prospecting began; a number of pulp and paper mills was concentrated in the region; new towns grew on the basis of new industries.
Perm region scenery
Perm region natural resources, economy
Perm region is rich in various deposits which is explained by complicated relief of mountainous and lowland parts of the region. There are such deposits as: oil, gas, coal, mineral salts, gold, diamonds, bog iron ore, peat, limestone, precious and decorative stones, construction materials.
For the first time oil was found in Permsky krai in 1929. At present over 160 deposits of hydrocarbon raw materials are known in the province, among them the following are worked: 89 oil, 3 gas and 18 oil and gas deposits. Most of them are not large.
Coal is mined on the territory of the region for over 200 years. The max of coal mining was reached in 1960 and was 12 million tons, later the amount of coal mining kept decreasing and there was no prospecting of new deposits.
One of the largest deposits of potassium salts in the world - Verkhnekamskoye - is located here. Chlorous salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium as well as rock-salt are mined there. It occupies about 1,800 sq. km., the thickness of salt-bearing layers reaches 514 m.
The main Saranovskoye deposit is the only worked deposit of chromites in Russia. Deposits of iron and copper known from the early 18th century are also worked.
In the north of the region, in Krasnovishersky district, diamonds are mined. Diamond deposits were found in Gornozavodsky district, in the basin of the river Koiva, where the first diamond in Russia was found in 1829. High-quality diamonds are used in jewelry industry.
Forests prevail over all other types of flora in Perm province covering about 70% of the territory. Fir-trees and silver fir-trees are the main ones.
Perm province is one of the most economically developed regions in Russia. The basis of the region economics is highly developed industry. The main branches are as follows: oil, chemical and oil chemical, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, wood processing.
Annually about 10 million tons of oil is extracted in the region. Oil and gas processing plants are located here. The production of mineral fertilizers is the leading branch of chemical industry. Perm province produces 100% of potassium fertilizers in Russia.