Orenburg oblast overview
Orenburg oblast (other spelling Orenburgskaya) is situated in the boundary of Europe and Asia in the basin of the middle current of Ural (Volga Federal District). It has boundaries with Kazakhstan state. Administrative center of the region is Orenburg city.
Orenburg oblast population - 2,112,000 (2009); land area - 123,700 sq. km.
Orenburg oblast facts
Orenburg region is divided into 35 districts, 12 towns, 1768 settlements. The population of oblast consists of more than 80 nationalities: Russians - about 72%, Tatars - about 7%, Kazakhs - about 5%.
The climate of the oblast is of moderate continental type, which is seen in high amplitude of temperatures in winter and summer. The warmest month in Orenburgskaya oblast is July, the coldest is January. In summer the air can be hot up to 40-43 degs C, in winter 43-45 degs C below zero.
The territory of Orenburg oblast is rich in mineral resources: over 2,500 deposits of 75 different raw materials have been discovered and developed. Oil, charcoal, ferrous and non-ferrous metals are the key deposits.
Orenburg oblast nature
Orenburg region landscape
Orenburg oblast history
About 4,000 years ago, the endless Great Steppe stretched in this area. Nomad tribes of the Sarmats and Scythes lived there. They grew wheat and raised cattle. Numerous hills - huge grave mounds - are the monuments of their many hundred years history. Some hills are preserved till nowadays.
Archeologists found hundreds of hills near the cities Orsk, in Ileksky and Sharlyksy districts. A lot of golden decorations are hidden in Scythian graves. Nomads were skillful jewelers. In 1911 in the hill near the village Prokhorovka of Sharlyksky district archeologists found a silver plate dated to early 3,000 B.C. and some other items telling about trade links development. The ornaments of animals and birds are found on Scythian weapons. The ancient items found by archeologists in the hills are kept in regional museums of local study.
From the 30s of 18th century when the Khazakh tribes of neighboring Younger Zhooz voluntarily joined the Russian state, the territory of modern Orenburgskaya oblast was rapidly assimilated by migrants from central regions of Russia. In 1743 the frontier fortress Orenburg was founded, it became the administrative center of Orenburgskaya gubernia. The gubernia united a part of modern Kazakhstan, Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Chelyabinskaya and Samarskaya regions.
Favorable location of the gubernia, its “privileges” and business activity of merchants influenced development of trade, economic and cultural links with Middle Asia and eastern countries. The historical role of Orenburg region was defined as a link between East and West.
On December 7th, 1934, Orenburgskaya oblast was formed. After it the industrial development rapidly grew. Kaspiysk-Orsk oil pipeline was constructed, large plants of non-ferrous metallurgy, heavy machine building and chemical industry were built. The 1960s and 1970s were a special period in developing of industrial Orenburg region, especially of heavy industry, light and food industries. In 1967 a unique Orenburg gas condensate deposit was found.
Orenburgskaya oblast sceneries
Orenburgskaya oblast scenery
Orenburg oblast economics
The leading industries of Orenburg region are fuel, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical, oil chemical and food industries. The largest in Russia gas condensate deposit is located in Orenburgskaya oblast. Oil is extracted (in the Ural area), iron ore (Khalilovskoye deposit), copper (Guyskoye deposit) and nickel ores, asbestos (Kiyembayevskoye deposit).
About 25% of population is busy in industry and 55% of gross regional output is produced. Machine-building (agricultural, transport and tool) is an important branch of industry in the oblast. Heavy industry is the main one. Metallurgical industry produces 30% of all industrial product. Plants of ferrous and non-ferrous industries are city forming. The steel of Orsko-Khalilovsky metallurgical plant is used in construction of gas lines, bridges, power engines and train cars, agricultural machines.
Agriculture is presented by crops growing and cattle breeding. There is the Orenburg plant of downy shawls and balneological mud resort “Guy”.
Orenburg oblast is located on the crossroads of numerous railroads and highways making it an important transportation hub. Russia’s major gas and oil pipelines, connecting Siberian gas and oil fields to the European part of Russia and other European countries, cross the territory of Orenburg region.