Udmurt Republic overview
Udmurt Republic (also spelled Udmurtia, Udmurtiya) is situated between the Vyatka and the Kama rivers (Volga Federal District). Udmurts are the native people of the region. About 2/3 of all Udmurts are living in their republic. The capital city of the region is Izhevsk.
Udmurtia population is about 1,517,000 (2012); land area - 42,061 sq. km.
Udmurt Republic facts, resources
Udmurtia is located in the western part of Middle Urals, in the basins of the Kama and the Vyatka rivers. The territory consists of a number of hills and lowlands. Udmurtia is located in the area with inner continental climate with hot summers and cold snowy winters. The average temperature in a year is plus 1-3 degrees Celsius. The warmest month is July (17 degrees C above zero), the coldest - January (14-15 degrees C below zero).
The main natural resource of Udmurt republic is oil. Prospected oil resources are about 300 million tons, 10 million tons is extracted every year. Udmurtia is a part of Volga-Ural oil and gas bearing province. Oil-prospecting on its territory began in 1945, the first plants came into being in 1969.
At present, all large deposits have been worked for dozens of years and oil extraction is decreasing. Brown coal and coals are mined in the republic. There are also deposits of limestone, dolomites, sands and detritus, clay for brick-making, stone and sandy gravel mixture.
Udmurtia Republic nature
Udmurtia republic nature view
Udmurtia Republic history
The most ancient archaeological monuments are the evidences of Udmurtia territory being inhabited in Mesolithic epoch (8,000-5,000 B.C.). In later archaeological periods ancient Finno-Ugric population was differentiating in western Urals.
In early iron period Ananyinskaya cultural and historical community was formed in the Kama area. These were the ancestors of the Perm people - the Udmurts and the Komis.
In the 10th century, the ancient Udmurts were joined to the first state in the lower Kama area - Volzhskaya Bulgaria. It was a great influence on the Udmurts. From the 13th century, the southern Udmurts were influenced by the Golden Horde and later Kazan Khanate. The site of ancient settlement Idnakar was the largest trade, cultural and administrative center of the northern Udmurts retaining their independence.
The first Russian settlements came into being on the Vyatka river in the 12th-13th centuries. The northern territory of Udmurtia became the part of the Russian state. By 1557, after Ivan the Terrible conquered Kazan, the process of joining the Udmurts to the Russian state was over.
Till the mid of the 18th century, the population of Udmurtia was busy preferably in agriculture and handicrafts. In 1756, the first plant was constructed - Bemyzhsky copper-melting, later iron-producing ones - Pudemsky and Votkinsky (1759), Izhevsky (1760) and Kambarsky (1761).
The industry and culture of the region rapidly developed in the second half of the 19th century. Private factories, workshops, banks, gymnasiums, schools, theaters and libraries were opened. The plants of the region exhibited their product at the large Russian and foreign exhibitions.
In 1899, railways Perm-Kotlas and Kazan-Yekaterinburg crossed the northern part of Udmurtia and in the early 20th century - the southern part. These railways played important role in economic development of the region. Before the October Revolution the territory of Udmurtia was a part of Kazan and Vyatskaya gubernias.
Votskaya Autonomous oblast was formed on November 4, 1920. On January 1, 1932, it was renamed into Udmurt Autonomous oblast. Votskaya Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was formed on December 28, 1934. Due to its favorable location Udmurtia turned into a large military and industrial center of the USSR.
During the World War II, about 40 plants were evacuated to Udmurtia. National and state structure of the region and its defense-oriented industry continue to greatly determine historical, social, economical and cultural peculiarity of Udmurt Republic.
On November 4, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Udmurt ASSR declared the sovereignty of the republic and the region received new name - The Republic of Udmurtia. According to the Constitution adopted in 1994, Udmurtia is a state within the Russian Federation.
Udmurt Republic views
Udmurt Republic economics
Udmurtia is the republic with developed industry and agriculture with various branches. The concentration of military plants in Udmurtia is the highest in Russia. The main industries are as follows: machine-building, metal-working, ferrous metallurgy and wood-processing industries. Metallurgical plants are concentrated in Izhevsk, casting production - in Izhevsk and Votkinsk.
Arable fields occupy about 50% of the territory of Udmurtia. Cattle-, sheep- and pig-breeding, poultry keeping are developed. Rye, wheat, buckwheat, barley, oats, millet, peas, maize, sun-flower, flax, rape, vegetables and forage grains are grown.
The only airport of the republic is located in Izhevsk. Railway transportation is the leading one in providing inter-regional links of the region. Railway delivers the main part of freight and passengers.
There are several sanatoriums and curing resorts in Udmurtia, the largest of them are “Varzi-Yatchi”, “Metallurg” (located in Izhevsk) and “Uva”.
In 2000s, new recreation centers came into being - mountain skiing centers “Chekeril” and “Nechkino”.