Moscow (Russian spelling Moskva) is the capital of the Russian Federation and the administrative center of Central Federal District and of Moskovskaya oblast. Moscow is the largest city in Russia and Europe as well as one of the largest cities in the world.
Moscow refers to global cities having great influence on the world due to its high economical level and its population. It is an important transportation juncture as well as political, economic, cultural and scientific center of Russia.
The city is surrounded by 6 airports, 9 railway stations, and 3 river ports. Moscow has developed a fabulous metro (subway) system with the first stations built in 1935.
Moscow has the population of 11,978,000 (2012), land area - 2,511 sq. km.
The phone codes are +7 495, +7 496, +7 498, +7 499, postal codes - 101000-135999.
Several matches of FIFA World Cup 2018 will be held in Moscow.
Moscow is located in the center of the European part of Russia, between the rivers Oka and Volga. The climate is moderate continental: heavy frosts and extreme heat are rare, but departures from the norm often happen. Moscow is the smallest federal subject of the Russian Federation by land area.
The name of the city, like the names of a lot of cities in the world, is bound with the name of the river Moskva, and it was called this way long before the settlement appeared. It is unknown who named it and what this name means. There are 2 versions: Finnio-Ugric and Slavic.
According to the first one, the word “Moskva” is derived from the Finno-Ugric language group which means “river-bear”. The Slavic theory points to the stem “mosk” denoting “marshy” or “moisture, liquid, marshland, dampness”.
Krasnopresnenskaya station entrance
The real age of Moscow is not known. There are some myths saying that the founding of Moscow refers to ancient times, but the first trustworthy chronicle which mentioned the settlement is the Ipatyev Chronicle, saying that on Saturday, April 4, 1147, prince Yury Dolgoruky received his friends and allies headed by prince Svyatoslav Olgovich in a small town called Moskov. Moscow at that time bordered the prince’s estate.
In the early 13th century, Moscow became a center of principality for the first time. In the first half of the 15th century, Moscow became more and more significant. This fact was directly bound with the Tatar-Mongol yoke. Golden Horde put the Russian principalities under its tribute. Its systematic raids on the Rus’ destroyed the land, and the princes were obligated to have permission to rule from Horde.
By 1712, the capital of Russia was transferred to Saint Petersburg, but Moscow remained the city where emperors were crowned. In 1754, by Catherine’s II order, Michail Lomonosov founded Moscow University.
During the War of 1812, Moscow suffered heavy fires, and the university was badly burned. Afterwards it was restored and the Church of Christ the Savior was built. By the end of the 19th century, trams appeared in Moscow.
In 1918, Moscow became the capital of the Russian Federation. A new Soviet epoch began in the history of the city. In the Soviet Union, Moscow became the state and international political center of the country, and the importance of the city increased.
In the winter of 1941-1942, the Moscow Battle took place which the Soviet troops won. This was the first victory over Nazi Germany in the World War II.
In 1980, Moscow became an Olympic city. The 22th summer Olympic Games took place in the city.
In 1995, new symbols of Moscow were adopted - a coat of arms, a flag and a hymn. A number of international cultural and sports events took place in Moscow including the Finals of the UEFA Champions League in 2008.
Moscow is the largest Russian financial center as well as the center of managing most of the country’s economy. About a half of the banks of Russia are located in Moscow. Most of the largest companies are registered and have head offices in Moscow, although their manufactures might be located thousands of km from Moscow.
In spite of its relatively small part of industry in economics, Moscow is the largest industrial center of Russia based on its considerable qualified labor resources.
The city is a center of machine-building, (including tool, ship, energetic machine building, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy), chemical, light and polygraphic industries. It’s worth mentioning that recently there’s a process of transferring industries outside Moscow. The city is the most important center of retail sales in Russia. Moscow represents 30 per cent of all commodities sold in Russia.
Moscow is also a big scientific center. Long before the Revolution the science was developed in the city; especially quickly in the Soviet times. There are a lot of scientific research institutes carrying out investigations in many branches, such as nuclear power, microelectronics, space research and other progressive branches.
Moscow Peter the Great monument
Moscow transportation system
Moscow has been the largest transportation juncture in Russia in the course of all its storied history. The city is located in the very center of the hub of railways and highways. Many types of city transportation are developed in Moscow.
There are 9 railway stations in the city:
- Byelorussky station - trains in the western and south-western direction, as well as to Byelorussia, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and Hungary.
- Kursky station - trains to the central and southern part of Russia, south-eastern part of Ukraine, to the Caucasus and Crimea, as well as transit trains to Saint Petersburg and Murmansk, the largest station in Moscow.
- Kievsky station - trains to the western and south-western part of Russia, to Ukraine and Moldova, to Bulgaria and Greece. Aero express buses to airport Vnukovo start from here.
- Paveletsky station - trains to the central and southern part of Russia, to Kazakhstan, Volga region, Northern Caucasus and Azerbaijan. Aero express buses to airport Domodedovo.
- Rizhsky station - trains to Velikie Luki and Riga.
- Savelovsky station - the only railway station in Moscow with just local trains to the suburbs of Lobnya, Dmitrov, Dubna, Savelovo as well as aero express buses to airport Sheremetyevo.
- Yaroslavsky station - trains to the northern, north-eastern and eastern parts of Russia, to Urals, Siberia, Far East, China and Mongolia. This is the largest station in amount of freight shipped.
- Leningradsky station - trains to the north-western part of Russia, to Estonia and Finland.
The international airport Vnukovo is located in Moscow. Inhabitants and guests of the city use other international airports, located on the territory of Moskovskaya oblast: Domodedovo, Sheremetyevo, Ostafyevo, Chkalovsky (a military airport, carrying out charter passenger flights).
Moscow is a center of federal highways heading different directions connecting the city with other administrative centers of the Russian Federation and bordering states.
Since 1935, the underground railway has been in action in the city, and it is the main means of transportation within the capital. Every day there are about 8 million passengers in the Moscow underground.
The present day Moscow faces serious transportation problems, because of the increase of vehicular traffic.
Moscow is one of the biggest cultural and tourist centers of Europe and the world. There are many places of interest in the city - various historical, cultural and architectural sites; as well as entertainment sights. There are more and more hotels in the city. Some of them are world famous hotel brands known for their quality and ambiance.
There are many places of interest in the Moscow area that are unique in the world. Some of these are: the Kremlin, Bolshoi Theater, A.S.Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and Tretyakov Gallery.
Such sights as the Novodevichy monastery and Kolomenskoye estate are UNESCO’s World Heritage. The hyperboloid design of Shuhovskaya tower and Ostankino TV tower are unique. The latter was once the highest building in the world.