Kaluga region overview
Kaluga oblast (region) (other spelling Kaluzhskaya) is a federal subject of Russia, part of Central Federal District located about 94 km west of Moscow. Administrative center and capital city is Kaluga.
Kaluga region population is about 1,006,000 (2012) on the territory of 29,777 sq. km.
Kaluga region facts
The climate in Kaluga region is of moderate continental type with distinctly defined seasons: moderate hot and humid summers and moderate cold winters with steady snow. The average temperature in July is 18 degrees Celsius above zero, in January 9 degrees C below zero. The warm period (with temperatures above zero) lasts 215-220 days.
The oblast was formed in 1944. Previously it was the part of Tula region. The urban population is about 765,000 (76%). The dominating nation is Russian (97%).
Main cities of the region are Kaluga, Obninsk, Ludinovo, Maloyaroslavets, Balabanovo, Kozelsk.
Kaluga region nature
Kaluga region nature view
Kaluga region economics
Kaluga region structure of economics is common for central part of European Russia. Industry takes about 40% of GDP, agriculture - 11%.
Main industries of the region are machine building, metal-working, food and timber. Obninsk is first Russian science specialized city (naukograd) of nuclear power, outer space machinery and radio equipment researches.
Kaluga region transportation system
Main transportation junctures of the region are Kaluga, Obninsk and Sukhinichi cities. Main highway of the region is M3 “Ukraine”, with intense traffic - 14,000 automobiles per hour, it stretches through the cities Balabanovo, Obninsk, near Maloyaroslavets, Kaluga, Sukhinichi and Zhizdra.
The federal highway A101 Moscow - Warsaw (“Old Polish”, “Warsaw”) is of great importance, with traffic intensity of 11,500 automobiles per hour.
Besides, the highway P132 Vyazma - Kaluga - Tula - Ryazan with traffic intensity to 6,750 automobiles per hour is of regional importance as well as the part of A108 going through the city of Balabanovo.
The total length of highways is 6,564 km. The density of highways is 165 km per 1,000 sq. km.
The main railway is Moscow - Kiev. There are 4 airports in the region, among them one civil airport “Grabtsevo” near Kaluga, military airports in the towns of Yermolino and a large military airport in Shaikovka.
The part of the river Oka flowing from Kaluga is among Russian waterways, there are cruises from Serpukhov to Tarusa, to Velegozh, two ships “Luch” serve the line Kaluga - Alexin. The total length of navigable and conditionally navigable waterways is 101 km.
Of special importance is the express train Moscow - Kaluga (3 departures a day, time of trip - 2 hours and 40 minutes). The city transportation in Kaluga is remarkable for its trolley-bus system.
Kaluga region is crossed by gas main Moscow - Bryansk, in the settlement of Rezvan, where the Ugra flows into the Oka, there is an underground gas depository.