Saint Petersburg overview
Saint Petersburg (other spellings Saint Peterburg, Sankt Peterburg, St Petersburg, St Peterburg) is the capital and administrative center of Leningrad oblast of Russia. The city is also the center of Northwestern Federal District.
In the 18th-20th centuries, the city was the capital of the Russian Empire. The names of the city: Saint Petersburg, 1703-1914; Petrograd, 1914-1924; Leningrad, 1924-1991; Saint Petersburg, since September 6, 1991.
Saint Petersburg population is about 5,028,000 (2012), land area - 1,399 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 812; postal codes - 190000-199406.
Several matches of FIFA World Cup 2018 will be held in Saint Petersburg.
Saint Petersburg facts
Saint Petersburg is located in northern Europe, in the north-west of the Russian Federation, on the shore of Finnish Gulf and on the Neva River. The city is an important economic and scientific center of Russia, a large transportation junction.
It is the only city in the world with the population over 1,000,000 which is located so far in the north. Saint Petersburg is the first largest city located in Europe and not being a capital.
Saint-Petersburg is considered to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world, being an important center of tourism in Russia. Since 2008, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation resides in the city.
Saint Petersburg history
Saint Petersburg was founded by the first Russian emperor Peter I in 1703. This was the date of founding Peter and Paul fortress. Peter I wanted the new city to be important in maintaining the water routes from Russia to Europe. Opposite the Peter and Paul fortress the first commercial port of Saint Petersburg was founded.
From 1712 till 1918, the city was the capital of the Russian Empire and the residence of the Russian emperors. In 1715, a Naval Academy was founded here, in 1719 - the first Russian public museum - “Kunstkamera”.
In 1724, Saint Petersburg Academy of Science was founded, in 1756 - a theater. In 1837, the first Russian railroad was opened from Saint Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo (now the town of Pushkin), in 1851 - from Saint Petersburg to Moscow. In the early 20th century, the city survived 3 revolutions: in 1905-1907, February and October revolutions of 1917.
The city became the center of newly formed Leningrad oblast on August 1st, 1927. In December 1931, it was retrieved from the region and became the city of republican importance.
During the World War II, Leningrad survived 900 days siege by German and Finnish troops. On September 6th, 1991, the city was given back its original name - Saint Petersburg.
Saint Petersburg views
Saint Petersburg city view
Saint Petersburg economics
Saint Petersburg is one of the most important economic centers of the Russian Federation. The economics of the city is based mainly on industry and tourism.
Heavy industry prevails in the city. The transportation machine building is well developed. In 2005-2009, automobile plants of “Toyota” and “General Motors” were constructed in the district of Shushar and “Nissan” plants in the district of Kamenka to the north-west of the city.
Saint Petersburg is the largest Russian center of military and civil shipbuilding and repairing. Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical, light and polygraphic industries are well developed.
The city is the largest center of brewing in Russia - 5 brewing factories produce almost 20% of all beer in Russia, all main beer producers in Russian market are presented here.
Tourism plays an important part in city’s economics. In 2010, Saint Petersburg was visited by about 2,300,000 foreign tourists (mostly from Finland, Germany, the US, Sweden, France). All in all together with Russian tourists the city was visited by 5,100,000 people in 2010.
In 2010, St. Petersburg ranked 7th among the most visited and popular tourist cities in Europe (#20 in the world).
Saint Petersburg transport system
Saint Petersburg is the most important center between Scandinavia and Europe, central parts of Russia and Baltic states. Highways connect the city with Moscow and Finnish border (M10 “Scandinavia”), with Estonian border (M11 “Narva”), with Murmansk (M18 “Kola”), with Pskov and Byelorussian border (M20).
In the southern part of the city the airport “Pulkovo” is situated, 2 terminals are in process – “Pulkovo #1” (flights within CIS) and “Pulkovo #2” (international flights).
There are 5 train stations in St. Petersburg:
- Baltic station (trains to Sosnovy Bor, Gatchina, Gdov, Luga)
- Vitebsky station (trains to south-west, including Kiev, Warsaw, Berlin; local trains to Oredezh, Veliky Novgorod)
- Ladoga station (trains to north-east, including Murmansk, Vologda, Petrozavodsk, Arkhangelsk)
- Moscow station (to Moscow, southern and central part of Russia)
- Finland station (local trains and trains to Helsinki).
Since 1995, there is an underground in the city.
Saint Petersburg sceneries
Saint Petersburg architecture
Saint Petersburg features
The high latitude of St. Petersburg position explains the phenomenon of white nights. During the period close to solstice, the sun is only 7 degrees below horizon, that’s why the sunset nearly coincides with the dawn and twilight continues all night long.
The definition of white nights is conventional. It is considered that in Saint Petersburg they take place from June 11 till July 2. White nights are the symbol of the city: various festivals and celebrations happen these days. The image of white nights is widely used in literature and arts.
Gulf Stream causes humid sea climate in Saint Petersburg. Most days in the year are cloudy and gloomy.
Saint Petersburg places of interest
Picturesque view of St. Petersburg is determined by architecture: straight streets, large squares, gardens and parks, rivers and numerous canals, embankments, bridges, monuments and decorative statues.
The places interesting as architectural masterpieces of the 18th-19th centuries:
- Peter and Paul fortress
- Alexander-Neva Lavra
- Smolny Institute
- Palace square with Winter Palace
- Nevsky prospect
- Vasilyevski island spit with the building of stock exchange
- Senate square with Peter I statue (opened in 1782)
- Architect Rossi street and Ostrovsky square
- Arts square
- Isaak’s square
Among the other interesting places of St. Petersburg are the fountains. The most famous among them is chain of fountains in Peterhof.
In 2005, new fountains were opened on Lenin square. In summer 2006, a fountain was opened near Neva, not far from Vasilyevski island spit. New fountains appeared on Moscow square and other parts of the city.