Oryol region overview
Oryol oblast (region) (other spellings are Orlovskaya, Orel) is situated in the central part of the East-European plain (Central Federal District). Capital city of the region is Orel. Main river of the region is the Oka.
Oryol region has the population of about 776,000 (2012) on the territory of 24,652 sq. km.
Oryol region facts
Wonderful nature of middle-Russia, wise peasant traditions and original people’s culture were the favorable foundation on which a number famous Russian gifted persons were nurtured.
Oryol province is the birthplace of I.S.Turgenev, N.S.Leskov, L.N.Andreyev, A.N.Apukhtin, A.A.Fet, philosophers S.N.Bulgakov, M.M.Bakhtin, historian T.N.Granovsky. The lives of F.I.Tyutchev, I.A.Bunin, M.M.Prishvin are linked with this region.
There are deposits of iron ore, brown coal, limestone, sands on the territory of the region. Deposit of uranium ores are prospected in the south-east.
The largest cities are Orel, Livny and Mtsensk. The province is divided into 23 districts, 3 towns of the regional submission, 4 towns of district submission, 14 town settlements, 221 villages.
Oryol region nature
Oryol region history
In the chronicles of the 12th century, the cities Mtsensk, Novosi, Kroma are mentioned, they are the same age with Moscow. 400 years later towns-fortresses Bolkhov, Orel, Livny were founded. The region was a place where more than once battles with Tatar nomads took place, dramatic events of the Time of Troubles occurred here.
The people in this area served on this disturbing boundary which defended the area from Tatar attacks. As the Russian state strengthened, the lands around Oryol became fertile granary which brought Oryol the fame of a grain-producing city.
Later, Oryol, standing on the Oka River, became the center of wide bread market which provided Moscow with crops and flour. Under Peter the Great, the town received the status of the center of Orlovskaya province which also included a considerable part of Bryansk and Lipetsk regions.
From the second half of the 19th century, railways and highways connected Oryol with Moscow and Ukraine, Baltic and Volga regions, they made the city a big transportation center. Before the Revolution of 1917, in Oryol, there was a cadet school, a theological seminary, several gymnasiums (future prime-minister P.A.Stolypin finished one of them).
In autumn 1919, bloody battles between general Denikin’s White Army and the Red Army took place near Oryol and Kromy. Orlovskaya oblast was formed on September 27, 1937. In 1944, Bryansk region was separated from Oryol region and, in 1954, with the formation of Lipetsk oblast, 9 eastern districts were separated from Orlovskaya oblast.
The area became a place of severe battles during the Second World War - the battle-front crossed the territory of the region within 20 months. When Oryol was set free, the first salute during the war was fired in Moscow on August 5, 1943.
Oryol province scenery
Oryol region economics, transport system
The economics of the province is based on industry and agriculture. A special type of investment is in action here. A line producing soft drinks (“Coca-Cola”) was constructed providing the whole region with its products.
Main industries are as follows: machine-building (30% of industrial output), food (over 25% together with flour-grinding) and construction materials production (13%). Beside Oryol where most of the plants are located, there are separate plants in Livny and Mtsensk as well as in other small towns of the region.
Agriculture is concentrated on raising dairy and meat cattle, pigs, poultry and horses.
The main transportation juncture is Orel city. Main highways of the region: M2 “Crimea”; P119 Orel - Tambov; A141 Orel - Vitebsk; P92 Orel - Kaluga.
Main railway is Moscow - Kharkov - Simferopol line. The largest main oil pipeline “Druzhba” crosses the region. A small part of gas pipeline Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhgorod crosses the region in its south-western part.
Oryol is a large juncture of oil product pipelines including the export ones to Byelorussia, Western Ukraine and Baltic countries, with its branches crossing Bryansk and Kursk.
The largest airport is Oryol-Yuzhny (Southern), there is also an airport in Livny. Passenger transportation of Oryol city is presented by trams, trolley-buses and city buses.