Lipetsk region overview
Lipetsk oblast (region) (also spelled Lipetskaya, Lipeck) is a federal subject of Russia, part of Central Federal District, located in the central part of European Russia about 400 km south of Moscow. Administrative center and capital of the region is Lipetsk.
Lipetsk region population is 1,162,000 (2012), land area - 24,047 sq. km.
Lipetsk region facts
The largest cities and towns of the region are Lipetsk (508,000), Yelets (107,000) and Gryazy (47,000). Main rivers are the Don and Voronezh.
The climate of Lipetsk region is Atlantic continental with moderately cold winters and warm summers. Average temperature in January is -5,2 degrees Celsius, average temperature in July +19,1 degrees Celsius.
There are two reserves in the area: “Galich’ya Mountain” - the smallest nature reserve in Russia with a preserved pre-glacial flora, as well as the part of the Voronezh Reserve.
There are about 300 deposits of various minerals on the territory of the region: limestone, dolomite, sand, clay, cement raw materials. The region takes the first place in Russia by the stocks of carbonate material.
Also there are significant deposits of peat. Lipetsk province mineral springs and curative mud found in 1871 are well known in Russia.
Lipetsk region nature
Lipetsk region nature view
Lipetsk region history
According to archaeologists and historians the territory of present time Lipetsk region has been populated since ancient times. Even before the arrival of the Mongol-Tatar troops here were the towns of Yelets, Dobrinsk (the village Dobroye now), Dubok (the village Dubki now). During the Mongol-Tatar yoke a lot of fortified towns were destroyed.
In the very beginning of feudal division, Lipetsk region lands belonged to Chernigov principality. After 1202, (after the death of Prince Igor Svyatoslavich) Yelets, Lipetsk and Vorgol principalities appeared. Taking advantage of the weakness of Chernigov principality, Ryazan princes seized all the lands of the upper Don, Voronezh river and annexed them to their possessions.
The revival of the region began following the expulsion of the nomads. In a relatively short period (the end of the 16th - the early 17th centuries) the fortress-cities Dankov, Talitsky ostrog, Yeletsk fortress, Lebedyan were rebuilt. In 1635, the construction of a strong fortified line Belgorod Zasechnaya began.
Since the end of the 17th century, the construction of large enterprises began in the province: from 1693 - The Steel Works on the River Beliy Kolodez; since 1700 - The Lipsky Iron Works; since 1703 - The Kuz’minsky Anchor Plant with weapons-assembly workshop.
The settlements of workers were constructed neat the plants. One of these workers settlements became Lipetsk settlement that gave rise to the city of Lipetsk.
At that time due to the establishing of Russian navy and regular army the demand for flax, hemp and wool increased. Therefore, the agriculture began to develop actively.
In the 18th century, large landed estates continued to grow. Lipetsk region rich in black earth was the breadbasket of Russian state. Subsequently the region became widely known as a mineral waters resort.
During the February Revolution, the October Revolution of 1917 and the Civil War, many cultural treasures, private collections of paintings and literature were destroyed and because of the ensuing repressions against the church and the “bourgeois past” architectural ensembles of numerous estates, churches and monasteries suffered a lot of damage.
Just as the subject of the Russian Federation, the region was formed by decree of January 6, 1954, from the districts of five neighboring regions.
Lipetsk region views
Lipetsk region country road
Lipetsk region economics
Industrial production is the basis of the economic potential of Lipetsk province, it accounts for about 66% of the gross regional product. The region ranks first in production of household refrigerators and freezers (over 40% of Russia’s production), the fourth largest steel production (14%) and ferrous metals (16%), is a major producer of sugar (7%), and canned fruits and vegetables (29 %).
The industrial complex of the region consists of about 200 large enterprises including iron and steel industry (the share of production is significantly increased compared with 1991 from 34% to 64%), machine building and metal processing (the percentage of products reduced in comparison with 1991 from 23% to 11,5%), electricity (7%), food (14%), chemical, textile and building materials industry (2%). The enterprises are maintaining relations with companies from more than 90 countries.
In 2005, an event happened, which may be a turning point in the history of the area. The region received the right to place on its territory the special economic zone of the federal level.
The course was chosen for the diversification of industrial production and the rapid development of the region by attracting large scale investment, both domestic and foreign. Lipetsk region is one of the leaders in attracting foreign investment in Russia.
Favorable climatic conditions, availability of black soil, contribute to the development of crop production. The area of farmlands has more than 1.8 million hectares. There are about 22 thousand hectares of fruit orchards, with apples, pears and plums mainly cultivated. There are about 300 agricultural enterprises in the area producing crops, sugar beets, potatoes, cattle, pigs and poultry.
The total length of Lipetsk region roads is about 7,800 km. The total length of railway network is over 800 km. The territory is crossed by three railway lines. Largest railway junctions are Yelets and Gryazy.
For the communication with other regions by air there is an airport “Lipetsk” in the area, as well as a number of local airfields (near Dankov, Terbuny and Chaplygin villages).
Lipetsk region attractions
There are a lot of various cathedrals, churches and monasteries on the territory of Lipetsk province of Russia.
Also the first in the world hyperboloid structure made by Russian engineer V.Shukhov is situated in Polibino village. The tower was built in 1896.