Perm is a city in the east of the European part of Russia located near the Ural mountains, the capital of Perm krai. It is a port on the Kama River, a large industrial, scientific, cultural, and logistic center of the Urals.
The population of Perm is about 1,036,000 (2015), the area - 800 sq. km.
The phone code - +7 342, the postal codes - 614000-614575.
The territory of the present city was inhabited since ancient times. There are more than 130 archaeological sites in Perm (from Stone Age to the late Middle Ages). In the 17th century, these lands belonged to the Stroganov merchants.
The date of Perm foundation is considered the day when construction of Yegoshinsky copper melting plant began - May 4, 1723. In 1780, Catherine II issued a decree about the foundation of the town of Perm on the basis of the plant.
In 1780-1781, the buildings for official institutions were being constructed, construction of Kazansky and Sibirsky roads began. On August 24, 1878, the Ural Railway from Perm to Chusovaya was opened. The end of the 19th century was a period of intensive railway construction.
More Historical Facts…
At the end of the 19th century, institutions of arts and culture were intensely developed in Perm. In 1874, construction of an opera and ballet theater began. In 1886, the first movie theater “Illusion” was opened. In the early 20th century, the city’s population reached 100,000 people.
The Civil War, military communism together with economic dislocation led to the degradation of the local economy. At the same time, the administrative center of the Urals was moved from Perm to Sverdlovsk.
According to the census of 1926, the population of Perm was 84,804. By 1939, it grew over three times and was 306,000. In 1940-1957, the city was called Molotov after V.M.Molotov, the chairman of the USSR government in 1930-1941. A lot of people and several plants were evacuated to Permskaya oblast during the World War II.
In 1955, construction of Kama power station was completed. In 1958, the first part of Permsky oil processing plant began operating. In 1967, Communal Bridge was built connecting the center of Perm with the right bank of the Kama River.
By May 20, 1979, Perm had a population of one million people, in just 50 years the city’s population increased by more than 10 times (in some years, the population increase was 15% and was the highest among all the cities of the Urals).
In the 1990s, the soccer club “Amkar” and the basketball club “Ural-Great” were founded. In the 2000s, they achieved success in the Russian football and basketball leagues.
Rotunda in the park in Perm
The Palace of Culture named after Lenin in Perm
Perm stands on the banks of the Kama River, the largest left tributary of the Volga, to the south of the mouth of the Chusovaya River. It is the third most extensive city in Russia after Moscow and Sochi and the third after St. Petersburg and Moscow by the area it occupies. Perm stretches about 70 km along the Kama.
According to the Russian linguist and academician D.V.Bubrih’s version, the word “perm” derives from a Vepsian word “perama” meaning “far-away land”. Permian geological period (often simply “Perm”) is named in honor of the Perm province. In 1841, the British geologist Roderick Murchison allocated this geological period when he was on an expedition in the Kungur district of the Perm province.
Perm climate is temperate continental. The average temperature in January is minus 12.8 degrees Celsius, in July - plus 18.6 degrees Celsius.
The city has a flag and coat of arms approved by the decree of Empress Catherine II on July 17, 1783. City Day is celebrated on June 12 and is timed to the Day of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Federation.
Perm is a large scientific center, where a number of institutions of the Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences are located as well as dozens of other research institutions and universities.
This city is the main economic center of the region and one of the largest economic centers of Russia. The local economy is based on heavy industry. The leading industries are: electric power, oil and gas processing, mechanical engineering, chemical and petrochemical, wood processing, polygraphic, and food industries.
Perm is the first city in the Urals in terms of output, leaving behind such large cities as Ekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, and Ufa.
The Palace of Culture of Railwaymen in Perm
Perm transportation system
Perm city is a large transport hub. It has a favorable geographical position - in the center of Russia at the crossroads between Europe and Asia (the Trans-Siberian Railway).
The railway goes in four directions: Kirov-Nizhny Novgorod-Moscow, Ugleuralskaya-Solikamsk, Chusovaya-Nizhny Tagil, Kugul-Ekaterinburg. A lot of trains pass through the city connecting the Central, North-Western, Volga regions of Russia with the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East.
The international airport Bolshoye Savino offers flights to Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Samara, Sochi, Ufa, Bangkok, Dubai, Dushanbe.
The federal highway Kazan-Perm-Ekaterinburg runs through the city. The Kama River connects Perm with the European waterways. Various cargoes are delivered to the ports on the Baltic, White, Black, Azov, and Caspian Seas, to the river ports of the Great European Ring.
Tourist routes connect Perm with Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan.
The monument to the People’s Doctor F.H. Gral - the founder of the Perm provincial medicine
Bear sculpture in front of the Organ Concert Hall in Perm
Perm places of interest
- Perm Art Gallery has a world-famous exhibitition of Perm wooden sculpture, one of the richest in Russia collection of masterpieces of Russian icon painting, paintings (Repin, Levitan, Savrasov, Serov) (Komsomolskiy Avenue, 4);
- Perm Regional Museum (Monastyrskaya Street, 11);
- Perm Museum of Artillery (the museum of “Motovilikha plants”) has one of the most complete collection of artillery weapons in Russia (1905 goda Street, 20);
- The House-Museum of the Inventor of Electric Welding N.G. Slavyanov (1905 goda Street, 37);
- The Memorial House-Museum “Underground press” (Monastyrskaya Street, 142);
- The Museum-Diorama on Vyshka Mount - in the Soviet period, it was the main monument of the city;
- The Puppet Theater Museum (Sibirskaya Street, 65);
- The Museum “The House of Diaghilev” (Sibirskaya Street, 33);
- The Museum of the History of Communication (Lenina Street, 68);
- The Museum of the Kama Hydroelectric Station;
- Aviation Museum (Kosmonavtov Highway, 262).
Perm theaters and other cultural institutions
- Perm Academic Opera and Ballet Theater named after Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Petropavlovskaya Street, 25a),
- Perm Academic Theater “Theater” (Lenina Street, 53),
- Perm Youth Theater (Ekaterininskaya Street, 68),
- Perm Puppet Theater (Sibirskaya Street, 65),
- Perm Theatre “U Mosta” (“At the Bridge”) (Kuybysheva Street, 11),
- Perm Philharmonic Society (Sibirskaya Street, 11),
- Perm Planetarium (Gagarina Boulevard, 27a),
- Perm Circus (Uralskaya Street, 112),
- Perm Zoo (Monastyrskaya Street, 10).
Perm architectural monuments
- Meshkov House built in the 1820s (renovated in 1885-1886) is an excellent example of late Russian classicism (Monastyrskaya Street, 11);
- Gribushin House built in 1895-1897 by the Perm architect A.B. Turchevich in the style of the beautiful Art Nouveau is one of the most beautiful buildings in Perm (Lenina Street, 13a). It is believed that this house is depicted as the “house with figures” in the novel “Doctor Zhivago” written by B.L. Pasternak;
- Theological College (1885, Gazeta “Zvezda” Street, 18);
- Mariinsky women’s gymnasium (1884-1887, Petropavlovskaya Street, 23);
- Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral (1798-1832, Komsomolsky Avenue, 4);
- Bishops House (1793-1800, Komsomolsky Avenue, 6);
- The manor of the merchant A.G. Gavrilov (the 2nd half of the 19th century, Kuibysheva Street, 6);
- Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God (1905-1908, Plekhanova Street, 39);
- Cyril and Methodius School (1910, Pushkina Street, 76);
- Governor’s House (the end of the 18th century, Sibirskaya Street, 27);
- Rotunda in the city park (1824, Sibirskaya Street, 41);
- St. Peter and Paul Cathedral (1757-1764, Sovetskaya Street, 1);
- All Saints Church (1826-1832, Tikhaya Street, 23).