Perm is a city in the eastern part of Russia, located near the Urals mountains, an administrative center of Perm krai, a port on the river Kama. The city is a large industrial, scientific, cultural and logistic center of Ural region.
It is the third of most extensive cities after Moscow and Sochi and the third after Saint-Petersburg and Moscow by the area it occupies.
According to Russian linguist academician D.V.Bubrih’s version the word “perm” derives from a Vepsian word “perama” meaning “far-away land”.
Perm population is about 1,001,000 (2012); land area - 800 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 342; postal codes - 614000-614xxx.
The date of Perm foundation is considered the day when construction of Yegoshinsky copper melting plant began - May 4, 1723. In 1780, Catherine II signed her order on founding a city of Perm on the plant basis as well as Permsky vice-gerency in Permskaya and Tobolskaya provinces.
In 1780-1781, the buildings for official institutions were being constructed, Kazansky and Sibirsky roads were opened. Perm and the gerency were opened in 1781. On August 24, 1878, the Ural railway from Perm to Chusovaya was opened. The end of the 19th century was a period of intensive railway construction.
At the end of the 19th century, institutions of arts and culture were intensely developed in Perm. In 1874, the construction of Opera and Ballet Theater began. In 1886, the first cinema “Illusion” opened. In the early 20th century, the population of the city was about 100,000.
Russian Civil War, military communism together with economic dislocation led to degradation of Perm economy. At the same time the administrative center of Ural was transferred from Perm to Sverdlovsk.
According to the census of 1926, the population of Perm was 84 804. By 1939, it grew over three times and was 306 000. From 1940 till October 2nd, 1957, the city was called Molotov after V.M.Molotov, the chairman of the USSR government in 1930-1941. Permskaya oblast became one of the regions accepting evacuated people and plants during the World War II.
In 1955, the construction of Kama power station was over. In 1958, the first part of Permsky oil processing plant began operating. In 1967, the construction of Communal Bridge was over, it connected the center of the city with the right bank of the Kama river.
In 1990s, a soccer club “Amkar” and basketball club “Ural-Great” were founded, in 2000s, they achieved success in Russian football and basketball leagues.
Perm is standing on the banks of the river Kama, the largest left tributary of the Volga, to the south of the river Chusovaya’s mouth. The Kama River is a sort of city formation axis. Perm stretches 70 km along the river and 40 km far from it.
It is a large scientific center, where a number of institutes of the Ural branch of Russian Academy of Science are located as well as tens of research and project institutes, 7 Universities doing various scientific research of applied and fundamental types.
Perm is the main economic center of the region and one of the largest economic centers of Russia. The economy of the city is first of all heavy industry.
Leading industries are as follows: power energy, oil- and gas-processing, machine-building, chemistry and oil chemistry, wood processing, polygraphic and food industries.
Perm is the first city in Ural region in total volume of output, leaving behind such larger cities as Ekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk and Ufa.
Perm transportation system
Perm is a large transportation junction. The city has a good geographical location - in the center of Russia at the crossroad from Europe and Asia (Trans-Siberian railway). The railway goes in 4 directions: Kirov - Nizhny Novgorod - Moscow, Ugleuralskaya - Solikamsk, Chusovaya - Nizhny Tagil, Kugul - Ekaterinburg. The railway from Perm to Arkhangelsk will be constructed.
A lot of trains cross the city connecting Central, North-Western, Volgo-Vyatsky region of Russia with the Urals, Siberia and Far East, Moscow - with the capitals of Mongolia and China, Saint-Petersburg - with the capital of Kazakhstan.
The international airport Bolshoye Savino is an “air gate” of Perm: flights to Moscow, Anapa, Adler, Volgograd, Baku, Dushanbe, Yerevan, Kaliningrad, Krasnodar, Mineralnye Vody, Naryan-Mar, Nizhnevartovsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Sochi, Surgut, Syktyvkar, Frankfurt-on-Main and others.
The federal highway Kazan - Perm - Ekaterinburg crosses the city. The river Kama flowing through Perm is an important item of water system in European part of Russia, which is connected with water ways of European countries. Two the most eastern river ports of Europe are located in the city: port Perm and port Lyovshino.
From Perm cargoes are delivered to the ports of the Baltic, White, Black, Azov and Caspian Seas, to river ports of the Great European Ring.
Tourist routes connect Perm with Saint-Petersburg, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan.