Khabarovsk region overview
Khabarovsk krai (region) (also spelled Khabarovsky) is located in the center of the Russian Far East (Far East Federal District).
Land, sea and air routes pass through its territory connecting the interior parts of Russia with the Pacific ports, as well as Western Europe countries with Asian Pacific Rim countries. Administrative center of the region is Khabarovsk.
Khabarovsk region population is about 1,342,000 (2012) on the land area of 787,633 sq. km.
Khabarovsk region facts
Khabarovsk region is one of the largest administrative-territorial units of the Russian Federation. The territory of the region stretches for 1,800 kilometers from the North to the South, and from the West to the East - for 125-750 km. The distance from Khabarovsk region center to Moscow is 8,533 km by rail and 6,075 km by air.
The province is washed by the Okhotsk Sea and the Japan Sea. The coastline extension is 3,390 km, including islands, the largest of them are Shantarsky Islands.
On the coast of Tatarsky Strait there are water areas convenient for the construction of ports, such as the Chikhachev Gulf and Vanino Bay and especially the unique complex of deep, sheltered bays that form the Gulf of Sovetskaya Gavan. This gulf and the neighboring Vanino Bay are accessible for vessels during the winter period.
Khabarovsk region climate
The climate of the region changes from the north to the south, it also depends on the sea and relief form and type. Winters are long, severe with little snow. The average temperature in January is from 22 in the south to 40 degrees Celsius below zero in the north, on the coast it is 18-24 degrees C below zero.
The absolute minimum of temperature is 50 degrees C below zero. Summers are hot and humid. The average temperature in July is from 20 in the south to 15 degrees C above zero in the north.
Khabarovsk region nature
Khabarovsk region nature view
Khabarovsk region landscape
Khabarovsk region history
Russians began developing the Far East in the 17th century. In 1639, a Cossack troop headed by Ivan Moskvitin came to the shores of the Okhotsky Sea. The first stockaded town was built in the river Ulya mouth.
Later Vasily Danilovich Poyarkov and Yerofei Pavlovich Khabarov were the first to begin joining the Amur area to Russia. Before Russians came here the tribes of Daurs, Evenks, Natks, Gilyaks and others (about 30,000 all in all) lived in this area.
The area was rapidly inhabited by Russian settlers. New stockaded towns were founded. But the process was interrupted by Tsin Empire aggression. From the 80s of the 17th century, the Manchzhurians began fighting with the Russian state.
Russia didn’t have the chance to move forces to Amur region and had to sign the Nerchinsky treaty (1689). According to it the Russians were to leave the left bank of the Amur. Russia managed to uphold its rights for the area behind the Baikal and Okhotsky Sea coast.
In 1847, Nikolai Nikolayevich Muravyov was appointed a governor-general of Eastern Siberia. He did his best to return the Amur area to Russia. The number of Russians in the region began to grow. The Beijing treaty signed in 1860 was the final decision of the boundary problem. In 1858, the city of Khabarovsk was founded.
In 1884, Zabaikalskaya, Amurskaya and Primorskaya regions were united into Priamurskoye region ruled by governor-general with the center in Khabarovsk. Such division stayed till the end of the 19th century.
Till the end of the 19th century, the Amur area was slowly inhabited. The situation changed by the early 20th century. In 1900, Zabaikal railway was open, in 1902 - Chinese-Eastern railway and as a result the number of settlers grew faster.
From 1900 till 1913, about 300,000 peasants from other regions of the Russian Empire came to the Amur area. There were 3 cities: Khabarovsk, Nikolayevsk-on-Amur and Okhotsk on the territory which makes Khabarovsk krai at present.
The events of 1917 caused opposite appreciation in the Far East. Khabarovsk krai wasn’t an exception and split into “Red” and “White” ones. The Civil War lead to a great number of deaths and economic collapse. The restoration of pre-war level of state’s economy was finished by 1926. New cities were built - Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Birobidzhan.
On October 20, 1938, Dalnevostochny region was divided into Khabarovsky and Primorsky regions. In 1947-1948, Sakhalin and Amur regions were separated from Dalnevostochny region.
In 1953, Magadan region was formed and separated from Dalnevostochny region. In 1956, Kamchatka region became independent too. In 1991, the Jewish autonomous region was separated from Dalnevostochny region.
Khabarovsk region features
A characteristic feature of the region is a well developed river system, the major area belonging to Pacific Ocean basin (the Amur River basin), and the lesser one to Arctic Ocean basin (the Lena River basin).
About 430 km separate Khabarovsk region from the North Pole in the north. The south point of the region territory lies on the parallel that is situated to the north of the Hokkaido Inland and Portland city. Khabarovsk krai borders on China.
Khabarovsk region transportation system
Main federal highways of Khabarovsk region are M60 “Ussuri” (Khabarovsk - Ussuriysk - Vladivostok) and M58 “Amur” (Chita - Never - Svobodny - Arkhara - Birobidzhan - Khabarovsk).
The railway station “Khabarovsk-2” is the largest railway junction on Far East railway. The directions are as follows: to the south (to Vladivostok and Port Vostochny), to the west (to Moscow), to the north (to Komsomolsk-on-Amur).
The largest airport in the region is located in Khabarovsk. Flights to Moscow, Vladivostok, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Okhotsk and other settlements of the region and the country are available.
The river port in Khabarovsk is the largest on the Amur. The other river ports of the region are Komsomolsk, Nikolayevsk.
Sea ports of the region are Okhotsk, Ayan, Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, Vanino, Sovetskaya Gavan. Vanino is the largest seaport in the region.