Zabaikalsky region overview
Zabaikalsky krai (region) (also spelled Zabaykalsky, Zabaykalski, Zabaikalski) is situated in Zabaikalie.
The region was formed in 2008 by uniting Chita (Chitinskaya) oblast and Aginsky Buryatsky autonomous okrug. Zabaikalsky krai is a part of Siberian Federal District. Capital city of the region is Chita. The region borders on Mongolia and China.
Zabaikalsky region population is 1,095,000 (2012), land area - 431,892 sq. km.
Zabaikalsky region facts
Zabaikalsky region possesses considerable and little developed hydro-power potential as well as large resources of timber. The largest in Russia deposit of copper - Udokanskoye - is located on the territory of the region with the resources of 20 million tons.
The area possesses the largest in the country prospected resources of copper, molybdenum, gold, tin, tantalum and metallic ores. Zabaikalsky province is the main developing resource base of nuclear industry of Russia.
Mining is the main industry of Zabaikalsky region: gold, molybdenum, tin, lead, zinc and coal. Ferrous metallurgy is developed as well as machine-building - tools, compressors and refrigerators; forest and wood-processing industries; light and food industries.
Agriculture of the region is specialized in cattle- and sheep-breeding. In the north of the region reindeer-breeding and fur trade are developed. The growing crops are wheat, barley and oats.
Navigation is available on the river Shilka. Main resorts of the province are Darasun, Shivanda, Urguchan, Molokovka, Olentuy, Yamarovka.
Zabaikalsky region nature
Zabaikalsky region nature view
Zabaikalsky province nature
Zabaykalsky region landscape
Zabaikalsky region history
In 1,000 A.C., the territory of present Zabaikalsky krai was inhabited by the tribes of Evenks and later - Buryats. From the 18th century, the territory behind Baikal was assimilated by Russian colonists.
Among the first colonists there were a lot of exiled old believers. From 1782-1783, the region was a part of Nerchinsk (Zabaikalskaya) oblast of Irkutsk territory ruled by governor-general, from 1851, Zabaikalskaya oblast was a part of Irkytsk gubernia with the capital in Chita.
Since the 19th century, mining was the main industry of the region. A lot of exiled people worked at mines and plants. After rebellion of December 14, 1825, dozens of Decembrists were exiled there (brothers Bestuzhev, M.S.Lunin, N.M.Muravyov, C.G.Volkonsky, A.I.Yakubovich and others), later wives of some of them came to live there.
More Historical Facts…
The Decembrists influenced the development of the culture in the province. In 1851, Zabaikalskaya Cossack army with the center in Chita was formed.
At the end of the 19th century, the construction of Trans-Siberian railway forced the economic development of the province. During the Civil War, there were heavy fights of the Red Army with Kolchak and G.M.Semyonov armies on the territory of the region. On April 6, 1920, Dalnevostochnaya republic was formed. In 1922, it became the part of the RSFSR.
In April 1926, Zabaikalskaya gubernia was divided into Chitinsky and Sretensky districts which were the parts of Dalnevostochny kray. At the end of 1920 - early 1930s, during collectivization, Cossack settlements were destroyed; Buryat - cattle-breeders - were forced to have a settled way of life.
In March 1934, Chita oblast was formed, it became a part of Vostochno-Sibirsky kray. On September 26, 1937, Vostochno-Sibirsky kray was divided into Irkutsk and Chita oblasts.
Within Chita oblast there was Aginsky Buryat-Mongol national district formed. On March 2, 1969, there was an armed conflict on the Soviet-China border close to frontier point Nizhne-Mikhailovka on the island Damansky.
Present day Zabaikalsky region was formed on March 1, 2008 by uniting Chita region and Aginsky Buryatsky autonomous region.
Zabaikalsky region attractions
Among the historical monuments of Zabaikalsky region are:
- monuments of Nerchinsky stockaded town (the 17-18th centuries)
- wooden Mikhailo-Archangel church (the 18th century, Chita city)
- Saint Peter and Paul wooden church (the 19th century, Petrovsk-Zabaikalsky)
- Akatuyskaya prison, Decembrists museum, cemetery (the 19th century, Shilka)
- Resurrection church (1825, Nerchinsk)
On the territory of Nerchinsky district, there is unique Savateyevsky quarry of semi-precious stones.