Sakha Republic overview
Sakha Republic (also known as Yakutia, Yakutiya, Sakha-Yakutia) is the largest by territory federal subject of Russian Federation located in Far Eastern Federal District. Administrative center and capital city of the region is Yakutsk.
Sakha Republic has the population of about 950,000 (2009) on the territory of 3,103,200 sq. km.
Sakha Republic features
Yakutia is the largest administrative and territorial division in the world and accordingly, the largest part of the Russian Federation.
Sakha Republic territory is about 66% of Western Europe territory. The region of Yakutia stretches for 2,500 km from the South to the North. It is occupied by 3 time zones (2,000 km) from the West to the East. Almost half of Sakha Republic territory (about 40%) is in the Polar Circle.
From the South to the North the territory of Sakha Republic is cut through by the scores of rivers. There are Lena, Anabar, Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma, Olenek and other rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean. Yakutia is quite often named the land of rivers and lakes.
Yakuts are the area’s indigenous population, and their number is about 400,000. There are 10 towns and 34 administrative centers in Sakha Republic.
Sakha Republic climate
Sakha Republic is not only the biggest but also the coldest land. The Northern Hemisphere’s Cold Pole is to be found here in Oimyakon, with freezing temperatures down to 70 degrees Centigrade in winter.
The whole of Sakha Republic lies in the permafrost zone with the permafrost depth reaching up to 500 meters and more. Yakutia’s climate is sharply continental. For all that Yakutia’s summer is quite hot, with temperature sometimes reaching up to 40 degrees Centigrade.
Yakutia Republic nature
Yakutia republic landscape
Sakha Republic history
Archeologists stated that ancient men inhabited Yakutia region in early Paleolithic epoch. At the same time also appeared the archeological monuments dated from 300,000 to 3 million years ago. Beginning in mid 1,000 A.C. the ancestors of Evens and Evenks appeared on the territory of Yakutia.
Cattle breeding development brought considerable changes into economic life of the region. Yakuts’ ancestors began developing various handicrafts (blacksmith’s, jewelry’s, pottery etc.) and constructing permanent houses. By early 17th century Yakutian kins lived in the Indigirka and Yana basins and advanced cattle- and horse-breeding to the arctic districts of Yakutia.
In the first quarter of 17th century Cossacks reached the banks of the river Lena. Stockaded towns founded by Russians: Yakutsk, Zhigansk, Verkhoyansk, Zashiversk, Srednekolymsk and others became advanced posts for Russian colonists advancing to the north-east of Asia. In 1632 Yakutsk stockaded town was founded on the right bank of the river Lena, it was the start of the future city Yakutsk. This date is considered to be the date of Yakutia joining the Russian state.
In 18th century the indigenous population of the region started being baptized. Due to Orthodox activities people education began developing as well as literature in mother language, inter-ethnical processes were in progress. Exile is a special page in the history of Yakutia. Exile started in 1640s. Beginning in 19th century Yakutian exile became more and more political. Decembrists were exiled to Yakutia as well as participants of the Polish revolt in 1863 and others.
On April 27th, 1922, Yakutian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was formed as a part of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. It was a political decision and it provided legal and constitutional base for forming an autonomous republic. In Soviet period of Yakutia’s history natural resources were widely assimilated, gold deposits working in 1920s was the start of the process.
In 1930s the Northern Seaway began being exploited, in the mouth of the river Lena a seaport Tyksi was constructed; navigable and air ways connected districts of the republic hardly available before. In 1950s diamond deposits were found in the west of Yakutia republic and high-capacity diamond mining industry was created.
A new period in the history of Yakutia began on September 27th, 1990, when Declaration of state sovereignty was adopted.
Sakha Republic sceneries
Sakha republic settlement
Sakha Republic natural resources
In the past the riches of Yakuts were cattle and its meat, milk, butter. The northern people had reindeers. And, of course, Yakuts, Evens, Evenks, Yukagirs, Russians used the nature and its gifts to support their life in such extremely conditions.
Mendeleev’s periodical system of chemical elements is presented fully in Sakha Yakutia Republic land. The present day Sakha Republic has developed mining industry with numerous mines, quarries, and pits. They extract gold, diamonds, coal, and various metals. The gold, diamonds, silver goods, furs, mammoth tusks, woods and others are all that Sakha Republic may offer to buyers from all over the world.
Sakha Republic economics
The industry of Yakutia is raw mining-oriented, the republic is rich in natural resources. The largest in Russia Elkonskoye uranium deposit is located in Yakutia, its prospected resources are estimated 344,000 tons.
Main industries are as follows: non-ferrous metallurgy, diamonds and gold (90% of all Russian diamonds and 24% of gold is mined in Yakutia; company “Alrosa” is the largest diamond producer in the world; the second in sell amount); coal industry; construction materials; forest and wood processing; light and food industries. Tourism industry is developing quickly in Yakutia region.
Agriculture of Sakha region is presented by milk- and meat producing, vegetable growing, fur-producing, reindeer-breeding.
Most part of freight is carried by waterways. During navigation the main waterways are the rivers Lena (with its tributaries Vilyui and Aldan), Yana, Indigirka and Kolyma. Freight to the northern districts of the republic is delivered by Northern Seaway.
The automobile roads net of Sakha Yakutia republic is being developed. On October 25th, 2008, the federal highway “Kolyma” (Yakutsk-Magadan) was opened for all-year-round exploitation. Air transportation is developed. There are 32 airports in the republic. The construction of Amur-Yakutsk railway up to Yakutsk is continued.