Buryat Republic overview
Buryat Republic (other spellings Buriat, Buryatia, Buryatiya) is a federal subject of Russia, part of Siberian Federal District.
Administrative center and capital city is Ulan-Ude. The republic is located in the south-central part of Siberia along Baikal Lake.
Buryat Republic has the population of 972,000 (2012) on the territory of 351,334 sq. km.
Buryat Republic climate
The climate in Buryatia is of sharp continental type, with cold winters and hot summers. Winters are cold, with dry frosts and little snow. Springs are windy, with late light frosts and almost no rains.
Summers are short, with hot days and cool nights, with heavy rains in July and August. Autumns come gradually, without sharp changes of weather, sometimes autumns can be long and warm. The average temperature in summer is 18,5 degrees Celsius above zero, in winter 22 degrees C below zero.
Buryat Republic lands info
The highest point of Buryat Republic is Mount Munku-Sardyk (about 3,500 m). Main rivers of the region are the Barguzin, Irkut, Kitoy, Oka, Selenga, Uda, Upper Angara and Vitim. Baikal is the largest lake of Russia.
Natural resources of Buryatia include 48% of Russian zinc deposits, 24% of lead, 37% of molybdenum, 27% of tungsten. There are also rich gold and uranium deposits on the territory of the region. It has unique and various flora and fauna.
Buryat Republic nature
Buryat republic nature view
Buryat republic landscape
Buryat Republic history
In 1206, Genghis Khan united Mongolian tribes and formed the Great Mongolian Empire. The territory behind Baikal was a part of the Empire. In the 16th century, the Mongolian Empire collapsed.
In 1639, the first Russians came to this region. From 1648, permanent settlement of Russians in the region began. In 1689, Russia signed Nerchinsky Treaty with Manchzhurian Empire.
The boundary was set between Russia and China along the river Argun. In 1703, Buryatia became a part of Moscow state according to the treaty signed by Peter I. In the 18th century, old-believers came to live in Buryat Republic.
After the penal servitude at Petrovsky plant came to an end, the 14 Decembrists lived in exile in Buryatiya. In 1851, the region behind Baikal was separated from Irkutsk guberniya (region) and reformed into an independent region - Zabaikalskaya oblast.
In 1900, Zabaikal railway was opened. In 1917, the first national Buryat autonomy was formed - the State of Buryat-Mongolia. On May 30, 1923, Buryat-Mongolia Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (with the capital city in Verhneudinsk) was formed. This date is considered the day of foundation of the Republic of Buryatia.
Industrialization in Buryatiya is marked by construction of big industrial plants and a big growth of gross output. By 1937, there were 140 big industrial enterprises in the republic which made 71,1% of gross output.
In 1934, Verhneudinsk was renamed Ulan-Ude. On July, 7, 1958, Buryat-Mongolia Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was renamed Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Since 1992, Buryatia is an independent republic of the Russian Federation.
Buryatia Republic scenery
Buryat Republic economics
Trans-Siberian railway crosses the territory of the republic, as well as Baikal-Amur railway and federal highways. At the same time, most part of Buryatia republic is characterized by extremely low developed infrastructure, absence of railway and good highways; air transportation is complicated due to airplanes and local airports wear.
Industry is the leading branch of republic economy. Main industries are as follows: machine-building and metal-working, power engineering, timber, wood-working, paper and pulp industry, non-ferrous metallurgy, fuel, food and light industries.
In spite the fact that the region is located in a region of risky agriculture, Buryatia produces considerable part of required food. Food industry in Buryatiya is presented by plants producing meat, milk, fish, flour and others.
By the Russian Federation government’s decree of February 3, 2007, a special tourist recreation economic area “Baikal harbor” was formed on the territory of Baikal region of Buryatia. This area is planned to be all-year round health resort with highly developed infrastructure on the territory of about 700 sq. km.
“Baikal harbor” will be a tourist center in the east of Russia. Also there are several large reserves and national parks in Buryatia Republic.