Magadan region overview
Magadan oblast (region) (also spelled Magadanskaya) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation situated in the northeastern part of Russia (one of the Russian Far North regions).
The region is the part of Far Eastern Federal District. The administrative center and capital is Magadan.
Magadan region population is about 152,000 (2012); land area - 462,464 sq. km.
Magadan region history
The territory of Magadan region was inhabited by Yakuts in the 18th century, before the first Russian Cossacks came to the Kolyma area. The history of Magadan area actually started in 1920s when geological survey expeditions arrived there. In early 1930s, they found gold deposits.
The firm “Dalstroy” was organized and it worked the mines. By the end of 1930s, the first gold mines were built and settlements were constructed around them. At that time unpaid work of the convicted was widely used, the hardest work was fulfilled by the prisoners.
Since 1950s, the prisoners were gradually replaced by workers from other regions of the country. Magadan province was officially formed in 1953 on the region previously known as Kolyma.
After the death of Stalin, paid labor began to dominate. A lot of people from all parts of the Soviet Union were attracted especially to gold mines. About half of the population of the region left it from the times of the Soviet Union collapse.
Among the indigenous people of the region are Chuvans, Evens, Itelmens, Koryaks, Orochs and others. By 2007, 57% of local small nations were Evens, 23% - Koryaks, 13% - Itelmens.
Most part of the population residing in rural districts are busy in original trade, the main ones are fishing and reindeer-breeding.
Magadan region views
Magadan region features, economics
The climate of Magadan province is severe, the region is rather far from central regions of the country. Winters last 6-7,5 months. The average temperature within a year is below zero throughout the region.
Over a half of the territory is washed by the Okhotskoye Sea and the Pacific Ocean. About 3/4 of the territory is occupied by tundra and forest tundra.
Magadan region soils are not very fertile. The province is rich in mineral deposits as well as deposits of non-ferrous and rare metals: gold, silver, tin, tungsten, copper, molybdenum, poly-metallic ores. There are deposits of oil, peat, timber and gas concentrate.
In the future, the region will work new deposits of gold and silver, commercial deposits of copper, molybdenum, tin and tungsten, survey and prospecting of Magadan oil and gas shelf. There are various types of fur-bearing animals: ermines, otters, weasels, gluttons, lynxes, Arctic foxes, foxes and wolves.
Fishing industry is the second important industry after mining one and the only industry product of which is consumed not only in the country but is exported. Fishing is of high social importance in Magadanskaya oblast as it gives work for local population in the city of Magadan and the settlements around it. There are also several fish processing enterprises in small settlements Evensk, Ola and Yamsk.
The region is connected with other regions by air, sea and automobile transportation. There are no railways here.
The main transportation gate is Magadan sea port through which most of freight arrives. Also there is an international airport in Magadan - the only city and industrial center of the region.