Primorye krai overview
Primorye krai (also spelled Primorsky, Primorskiy) is the farthest south-eastern region of Russia, situated in the East of Asia, washed by waters of Japan Sea (Far East Federal District). The distance from the farthest northern point to the farthest southern point is about 900 km. Administrative center of the region is Vladivostok city.
Primorye krai population is 1,988,000 (2009); land area - 165,900 sq. km.
Primorye krai facts
Primorsky krai is located in the south of the Far East, in the south-eastern part of the Russian Federation. It is bordered in the north by Khabarovsk krai, in the south by China, in the south-west by Korea and is washed by Japan Sea in the south and east.
The climate of Primorye region is of moderate monsoon type. Winters are dry (humid) and cold with sunny weather. Springs are long, cool, with often temperature changes. Summers are warm and humid, with maximum of precipitation. Autumns as a rule are warm and dry. The main peculiarity - lots of precipitation and fog in summer.
Summers are the periods of typhoons, these tropical cyclones come to Primorye krai every year, sometimes they bring a lot of harm. Average temperature in July is 17 - 26 degs C above zero. Average temperature in January - 8-18 degs C below zero.
Annual precipitation falling mainly in summer, especially during typhoons, is about 600-900 mm. Vegetation period lasts from 120-130 days in the North to 160-200 days in the South.
The area is the most southerly of the Russian Far Eastern territories in taiga zone and the most northerly in sub-tropic zone. This fact determines rich flora and fauna, landscape variety, warm sea in the south, curing water springs and thus ensures tourism development in the region.
Primorye krai nature
Primorye Russia krai nature
Primorye krai history
The first man appeared on this territory over 30,000 years ago. According to ancient legends the coastal line was densely inhabited. The most known are 2 states existing there in Middle Age - Bokhai state-kingdom and the state of Chzhurchzhens. But after Mongol invasion which destroyed ancient civilizations Primorsky area remained a wild forgotten region for a long time.
Only in mid-17th century assimilation of the south-eastern coast of Russia by the Russians began. In 1851 Europe learnt about Zolotoy Rog (Golden Horn) Bay and a year later the world knew about Zaliv Petra Velikogo (Peter the Great Bay).
After Vladivostok outpost was founded (on June 20th, 1860) and became a town (on June 7th, 1880) Primorsky kray began inhabited by migrants from different places of Russia, Ukraine, Moldavia, Baltic regions, Poland and Finland. Citizens of neighboring countries - Korea and China took active part in assimilating of new lands. Migration ended in 1917, with October Revolution. Primorsky kray was founded on October 20th, 1938.
Primorye krai resources
A number of large and unique deposits are found in Primorye region of Russia. The most powerful in the Far East mining industry works on their basis. Almost 100 coal deposits are found in the krai, their total resources are 2,400 million tons. About 70% of the coal is suitable for open working. Primorye kray is rich in non-ferrous metals: about 30 deposits of tin, 15 deposits of complex ores containing zinc, lead, copper and silver. Gold deposits are located both in the south of the krai and in the north.
The largest in Russia deposit of boron is located near Dalnegorsk town. It is worked openly and can ensure processing plants work for 50 years. Several deposits of phosphorites are found on the continent slope of Japan Sea.
There are different views on the amount of oil - from 10 to 150 million tons. Developed infrastructure of Primorye krai and its long distance from oil-producing regions of Russia ensure the suggestion that working even small deposits of oil and gas will be profitable.
Prospected deposits of germanium are not worked, although these deposits are among the largest in the world. Mountainous rivers have considerable but absolutely unused hydro-power resources.
Almost 80% of the territory of Primorye kray are various forests: fir-trees, large and small leave trees as well as bushes. About 12,300 million hectares are covered with forests, total timber resources - 1,750 million cubic meters. The forests of Primorsky region are also rich in cedar nuts, officinal plants.
There are the following preserves in Primorsky kray: Far Eastern sea preserve, Kedrovaya Pad, Lazovsky, Sikhote-Alinsky, Ussuriysky, Khankaysky reserves, hunting reserve Vasilkovsky.
Primorye region sceneries
Primorye krai economics
Advantageous geographical situation and rich natural resources potential of Primorye krai are the main conditions of economic development. Primorye region is the most developed area in Russian Far East. About 30% of social and economic potential of Far East is concentrated there: population, gross regional, industrial and agricultural production.
The economics of Primorye krai includes more than 50 fields of industry: fishing, timber, mining, ship repair etc; farming and forestry, transport and communication service, trade and services sector are the leading fields.
Fuel and energy complex, transport and communication are the key sectors of Primorye krai economy. Fuel and energy complex has its own coals, but also imported fuel is used. Almost all types of transport, such as: ships, trains, cars, planes are developed.
Marine transport is a specialization branch. Machinery construction, including ship building and repairing, aircraft building and instrument-making industry, ranks high in Primorye krai economics.