Sakhalin oblast history
In 1644 the first map of Sakhalin and Kuril Islands was compiled. In 1689 the treaty with Manchurians was signed in Nerchinsk. Russia had to leave the Amur region for almost a century and a half. As a result Sakhalin was beyond Russian influence for a long time.
In around 1750 Manchurian troops land on Sakhalin. The population of the island became dependent on Manchuria. In 1806-1807 the first Russian-Japanese armed conflict took place in the southern Sakhalin and Kuril islands. On October 20th, 1806, N.A.Khvostov declared Sakhalin the Russian territory.
In 1808 the Japanese restored ruined settlements in Sakhalin and Iturup. In 1811 the Japanese garrison of the island Kunashir took the Russian navigator V.M.Golovnin prisoner. V.M.Golovnin spent over 2 years in Japanese prison and was set free only after the Russian administration declared that N.A.Khvostov’s attacks were not legal.
In 1850 G.I.Nevelsky raised the Russian flag in the lower Amur and declared it and the Sakhalin island the Russian territory. On February 7th, 1855, the first Russian-Japanese treaty was signed in the town of Simoda. Simoda treaty stated that the boundary between Russia and Japan was to be between islands Urup and Iturup. Sakhalin Island remained undivided.
In 1858 the first exiled were brought to Sakhalin. In 1869 Sakhalin was officially declared as an exile and a prison. On May 7th, 1875, a Russian-Japanese treaty was signed in Saint-Petersburg. According to it Japan gave in all its rights on Sakhalin but acquired Kuril Islands instead.
In June-July 1905 Japanese troops occupied Sakhalin. On September 5th, 1905, a peace treaty was signed in Portsmouth (USA). According to it Russia ceded the southern part of Sakhalin to Japan. In 1906 the Russian government cancelled exile and prison on Sakhalin. In 1907 the Japan government formed a governorship Karafuto on the territory of southern Sakhalin.
On May 9th, 1920, the Soviet power was declared in the northern Sakhalin. On April 22nd, 1920, a 2,000 Japanese military troop landed in Alexandrovsk and accessed to power in northern Sakhalin. This was followed by arrests and murders of most prestigious adherents of the Soviets.
On January 20th, 1925, the “Convention on principal rules of USSR and Japan interrelations” was signed in Beijing. It returned the northern Sakhalin to the USSR. On April 13th, 1941, the Soviet-Japan pact on neutrality was signed. On February 11th, 1945, in Yalta, I.V.Stalin, F.Roosevelt, W.Churchill signed an agreement on conditions of the USSR entering the war with Japan. Among them there was the southern Sakhalin and Kuril Islands return to the USSR.
On August 8th, 1945, the USSR declared the war with Japan. In August 11-15th, 1945, there were fights for freeing the southern Sakhalin. On February 2nd, 1946, the land, forests and waters of the southern Sakhalin and Kuril Islands were declared the property of the Soviet state. At the same time Yuzhno-Sakhalinskaya oblast was formed on the territory of the southern Sakhalin and Kuril islands. A new oblast became a part of Khabarovsky krai.
In 1946-1948 the Japanese population of the southern Sakhalin and Kuril Islands was repatriated. On September 8th, 1951, a peace treaty with Japan was signed in San-Francisco. It said that Japan refused all the rights and claims to Kuril Islands and that part of the Sakhalin Island which Japan acquired according to Portsmouth treaty. But it didn’t say anything about whom these territories would belong. The Soviet delegation didn’t sign the treaty.
On October 19th, 1956, Soviet-Japan declaration was signed in Moscow. It said about the end of war between the USSR and Japan. Article 9 of the declaration implied negotiations on peace treaty and included the USSR agreement for passing Japan the islands Khabomai and Shikotan after the agreement was signed.
In 1960 the Soviet government refused to fulfill the obligations of the article 9 in Moscow agreement. On September 1st, 1983, Soviet jet fighter shot down a South Korean aircraft over Sakhalin territory, 269 passengers died.
Sakhalin oblast nature
Sakhalin Russia oblast nature
Sakhalin oblast features
Sakhalinskaya oblast is the only region in Russia which is located on islands. It includes the island Sakhalin (76,600 sq.km.) with neighboring small islands Moneron and Tyuleniy as well as Kuril islands (15,600 sq.km.). Sakhalin region is washed by the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan and the Pacific Ocean.
The climate is of moderate monsoon type. The average temperature in January is from 6 (in the south) to 24 (in the north) degs C below zero, the average temperature in August is from 19 (in the south) to 10 (in the north) degs C above zero.
Unique geographic location of Sakhalin oblast forms geographic advantage, which favors the development of foreign communications. Big length of Sakhalin region determines the diversity of geographic position, natural conditions, resources and economic opportunities.
Main feature of natural conditions of the region is high seismic and volcanic activity. It is especially typical for the Kuril Islands where there are 9 active volcanoes and earthquakes happen quite often.
Sakhalin region is divided into 17 districts, 9 towns of regional submission, 10 towns of district submission, 34 town settlements, 66 villages.
Sakhalin region views
Sakhalin Russia region lake
Sakhalin oblast natural resources, economics
Sakhalin oblast is the region in Russia which combines an outstanding raw potential with extreme conditions of its assimilating. The region is not provided with enough population, the infrastructure is not developed, besides, in Sakhalin it is worse due to the facts that it’s an island and the lack of stable all-year-round connection inside the region itself.
Beside biological resources of the sea in which Sakhalin is the first in Russia, the main resource is hydrocarbon fuel. In the amount of prospected resources of gas condensate Sakhalinskaya oblast is the 4th in Russia, in gas - the 7th, in coal - 12th and in oil - 13th. In timber resources the oblast is the 26th in Russia. But in Sakhalinskaya oblast there is absolutely no range of ore mineral raw resources, very little hydro-power resources, non-ore deposits and this fact reduces the whole resourceful potential of the region.
Sakhalin oblast is specialized in fishery and its processing, forest and wood processing, pulp and paper industries. Oil, gas and coal are mined in the oblast. Main industries are as follows: food, forest and wood processing, pulp and paper, light, fuel, construction materials. Sakhalinskaya oblast is the only one in Russia which produces agar.
Sakhalin island is the third-largest producer of fish products in Russian Far East. Seafood and timber are exported mostly to Japan as well as to other Asia-Pacific countries.
Sakhalin oblast attractions
Sakhalin oblast is a strategically important territory of Russian Federation in Asia and Pacific Ocean region as it possesses high recreation potential and advantageous geological location.
Sakhalin region nature is unique and beautiful. There are mineral springs, volcanoes and waterfalls on the territory of Sakhalin. On the Kurils there is the highest waterfall in Russia - “Iljya Muromets” with the height of 141 meters. There are exclusive monuments of archeology, sites, connected with culture of the natives.
There are balneological and thermal springs, curing mud deposits, over 1,000 cultural and historical objects, landscape allows mountain skiing and diving, water sports and sea cruises. But the level of this potential assimilation is not high.