Yakutsk is a city in Russia, the capital of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, a port on the river Lena. It is the largest city, cultural and scientific center in the north-east of Russia.
Yakutsk population is about 310,000 (2012).
The phone code is +7 4112; postal codes - 677000-677xxx.
On September 25, 1632, a troop headed by Pyotr Beketov, while examining the banks of the Lena River, founded Yakutsky (Lensky) stockaded town on the right bank of the river 70 km down the river from where present Yakutsk is located.
It was the land of Borogon Yakuts. In 1638, the town became a center of newly formed Yakut voevode. In 1642-1643s, the town was transferred to its current place - valley Tuymaada. In 1643, the town was renamed into Yakutsk.
The city was a military-administrative and trade center of the whole Lensky krai, from 1708, it was a part of Siberian gubernia, at the end of 1851 - Irkutsk gubernia. In 1822, Yakutsk became the center of the region. In 1851, the region of Yakutia received the status of independent region with the rights of gubernia with Yakutsk as the capital city.
Especially active development of Yakutsk was connected with the governor I.I.Kraft (1907-1913). A power station was built in the city as well as a telephone station, a museum, a department of Emperor Geographic Society was founded.
In 1922-1991, Yakutsk was the administrative center of Yakutian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Since 1991, the city has the status of the capital of Sakha Republic.
Yakutsk is the largest city located in permafrost zone. The climate is of sharp continental type. Summers are moderate warm, winters are long and very cold.
Average temperature in July - about +19 degrees Celsius, in January - about -40 degrees C. Frosts are often down to -50 degrees C, in summer, it’s often up to +30 degrees C. The absolute minimum is -65 degrees C, absolute maximum - a bit less than +40 degrees C.
Being the administrative and cultural center of the region, Yakutsk has no developed industries. Main industries are the ones supporting city’s life. Over a half (53,5%) is the output of fuel and power industry, 17,7% - food industry, 11,1% - diamond faceting, 4,3% - construction product, 3,2% - metal-working.
Yakutsk is located on the left bank of the river Lena. A river port is in action. Most part of cargo due to absence of railways passes through the river port. Besides, river transportation connects Yakutsk with other settlements in the Lena basin.
It’s complicated to reach Yakutsk by car: the federal highway M56 “Lena” ends in the settlement Nizhny Bestyah, located on the right bank of the Lena, opposite Yakutsk.
Connection with Yakutsk is as follows: in summer - by ferry, in winter (December-April) - across ice-covered river, when ice is drifting - only by air. The road is mainly graveled.
There are 2 airports in the city: “Yakutsk” (the main one; for inner republican, state and international flights) and “Magan” (the extra one; is located in the settlement with the same name).
Yakutsk places of interest
Shergin mine - a research well of the 19th century over 100 meters deep.
“Old City” - historical and architectural quarter downtown with the houses of old Yakutsk. Marketplace “Kruzhalo”, a building of Russian-Asian Bank, Gradoyakutskaya Transfiguration Church, a tower of old town founded by Pyotr Beketov and others.
Most of the wooden houses are newly built copies of half destroyed, burnt, or dismantled ones.
For example, a fortress tower - a masterpiece of Russian wooden architecture, a symbol of Yakutsk, depicted in Yakutsk coat of arms - for a long time has been on the territory of Yakut museum of local study (current Yaroslavsky United museum of history and culture of northern peoples).