Voronezh is an administrative center of Voronezh region of Russia situated on the banks of the Voronezh water reservoir (the Voronezh River) about 470 km from Moscow (590 km by railway).
The city is a cultural, industrial and scientific center of the region. There is a nuclear power plant near Voronezh being served by satellite town Novovoronezh (New Voronezh).
Voronezh population is about 1,004,000 (2012), land area - 596 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 473; postal codes - 394000-394095.
There is an international airport in Voronezh - Chertovitskoye Airport (IATA code: VOZ). The regular flights to Moscow are available (the flight time is about 1 hour).
Voronezh is also an important railway junction of the region. There are regular trains to Moscow, Kursk, Sochi, Tambov and other cities of Russia. The public transport of the city is presented mainly by buses and minibuses. There is also trolleybuses system.
The most known educational facility of the city is Voronezh State Medical Academy (VSMA) (included in Top 10 Russian medical universities). Thousands of students from all over the world (European countries, India, Iran and others) are studying in VSMA. The Academy is recognized by German Medical Council.
Voronezh settlement was founded on the bank of the Voronezh River by the Russian Tsar Fyodor I Ivanovich (son of Ivan the Terrible) in 1585. Main purpose of the settlement was to defend the Russian state southern border from Crimean Tatars raids. The town began to grow quickly after building the first Russian dockyard by tsar Peter the Great at the end of the 17th century.
The first Russian sea fleet (Azov fleet) was built there. The town received the status of Azov province administrative center in 1711. Later Azov province became Voronezh guberniya of the Russian Empire.
Voronezh was the center of the Russian Central Black Earth region in the 19th century. Among the main products of the city were bread, butter, cattle, leather, soap and others. It was connected with Rostov-on-Don city by railway in 1868 and with Moscow in 1871. Voronezh was the place of heavy battles during the World War II.
Voronezh is also known for numerous famous people lived and worked in the city. For example the laser inventor, Nobel prize winner, physicist Nikolay Basov; such Russian poets and writers as Bunin, Koltsov, Nikitin, Platonov, Marshak, Troepolsky. In 1934, the city became the place of exile of famous Russian poet Osip Mandelstam.