Vladivostok (other spellings are Vladivostock, Vladivastok, Vladivostoc) is a city and port in the Far East of Russia, an administrative center of Primorye krai, the end of Trans-Siberian Railway.
The city is located ashore of the Japan Sea on Muravyov-Amurski peninsula. It is supposed that one municipal unit called Bolshoi (Big) Vladivostok will be formed on the basis of Vladivostok and its suburbs. In September 2012, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit took place in Vladivostok.
Vladivostok population is about 622,500 (2012), land area - 331 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 423; postal codes are 690000-690xxx.
In 1859, the governor-general of Eastern Siberia Nikolai Nikolayevich Muravyov-Amurski while going on board a ship in a gulf Pyotr Velikiy (Peter the Great), paid a special attention at a well-hidden bay. It reminded him a bay Zolotoy Rog (Golden Horn) in Konstantinopol and the governor-general suggested to call it the same way and to found a military post on the shores of the bay. He called the post Vladivostok (“holder of the East”).
In 1862, the military post turned into a port and in order to increase the volume of foreign trade Vladivostok was given a status of a free port. In 1871, the main base of the Siberian military fleet, the residence of the governor-general and other naval institutions moved to Vladivostok from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur.
The same year submarine telegraph cable connected Vladivostok with Shanhai and Nagasaki. On March 16, 1883, Alexander III approved the first coat of arms of the city. In 1888, Vladivostok became the center of Primorsky region.
In 1903, the Trans-Siberian Railway connected the city with Moscow. In 1890s, Vladivostok gradually became the place where Russian culture in the Far East was concentrated. Vladivostok was a center where expeditions of Russian explorers and scientists were organized (N.M.Pzhevalsky, S.O.Makarov, V.K.Arsenyev, V.L.Komarov and others).
Since 1938, Vladivostok is the center of Primorsky kray. In 1958, it became a marine base of the Soviet fleet and for 30 years it could not be visited by foreigners.
In 1991, the first President of Russia Boris Yeltsin signed a decree by which Vladivostok seized to be a closed city from January 1, 1992.
Vladivostok remained an important transportation, industrial, trade and financial center of Russia, which promotes its further development. APEC summit on the island Russky in 2012 was of great importance.
The word “Vladivostok” came into being like the name of the fortress Vladikavkaz in the 18th century - a derivation from the words “hold” and “East”. The original English name of the bay Zolotoy Rog - Port May.
The climate of Vladivostok city area is of monsoon type. Winters are dry and cold with serene weather. Springs are long, cool, with temperatures changing often. Summers are warm and humid, with max of rains. Autumns, as a rule, are warm, dry, with serene weather.
An international airport “Vladivostok” is located 44 km to the north of the city. The federal highway M60 connects the city with Khabarovsk, the road A118 - with Nakhodka and Eastern port.
Vladivostok kept its military importance till nowadays. Headquarters and other services of the Navy of Russia in the Pacific Ocean are located in the city. Here in the navy base named the same way as the city some of the fleet ships are based.
Industrial machine-building is presented mainly by shipbuilding and ship-repairing as well as fishing equipment-making (tool-, gadget- and radio- making plants). For meeting Vladivostok needs there are light, food and construction industries. The city is a base of fishing trade and refrigerator fleet.
Vladivostok has an intermediate position between Trans-Siberian Railway and seaways in the Pacific Ocean and this makes the city an important cargo and passenger port.
The main items exported are fish and sea food, timber, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, ships. Imported are mainly food, medicines, clothes, shoes, household techniques and ships. Vladivostok is an important intermediate city for goods imported from Japan, South Korea and China.
“Fresh Plaza” is currently the only business center of international “A” level built for the APEC summit of 2012. The other places of the summit are a bridge across Zolotoy Rog bay and a bridge to the island Russky as well as Far East Federal University.