Orel (also spelled Oryol) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Orlovskaya oblast, about 370 km from Moscow.
The climate in the city is of moderate continental type. Winters are moderate cold, with periodical thaws and frosts, summers are not settled, with extreme hot and cool weather.
Orel population is about 319,000 (2012), land area - 128 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 4862; postal codes - 302000-302999.
Since the early 16th century, the town of Orel became the part of Moscow state. In 1566, according to Ivan the Terrible’s order, a fortress Orel was founded for protecting the southern borders of Moscow state. This year is considered to be the date of city foundation.
From the middle of the 17th century, Orel was the center of bread- and hempen-making industries. In 1708, the city was a part of Kiev gubernia (province), in 1719 - a center of Orlovskaya province, in 1727 - a part of Belgorod gubernia, in 1778 - a center of Orlovskaya region ruled by governor-general, since 1796 - of Orlovskaya gubernia.
In 1779, Orel was almost absolutely redesigned, at the same time the river Orel was renamed Orlik. In 1859, a telegraph line connected the city with Saint-Petersburg and Moscow. In 1860, the construction of a railway started. Two railway lines went through the city: Moscow-Kursk and Riga-Oryol. They were finished in 1868. The first train station was constructed the same year. The importance of shipping on the Oka River decreased.
In 1895, a power station and a bridge-dam were constructed in Orel. The construction was headed by a Belgian entrepreneur F.F.Gilyon. For the first time some houses and streets in the city were lightened up by electricity. The dam and the bridge built in 1895 are preserved.
During the Civil War, Orel was the final place reached by the White Army when it attacked Moscow in autumn 1919. In 1928, Orel was a part of Central oblast (till 1930 - a center of Orlovsky okrug), in 1934 - of Kurskaya oblast. Since September 1937 - a center of Orlovskaya oblast.
Orel city - the Oka River
Main industries of Orel are machine- and equipment-building, metallurgy, food industry.
Main advantages of the city, which can strengthen its position and help its economic development are as follows:
- high professional, educational and cultural level of majority of its population;
- advantageous geopolitical location of the city in the Russian Federation;
- attractiveness of the city as an educational, cultural and tourist center in Central Russia.