Lipetsk is a city in Russia, the capital of the Lipetsk region, standing on both banks of the Voronezh River, about 445 km south-east of Moscow.
The population of Lipetsk is about 510,000 (2015), the area - 320 sq. km.
The phone code - +7 4742, the postal codes - 398000-398059.
Even before the Mongol invasion, there was a Slavic fortified settlement on the site of the present city. The settlement was first time mentioned in chronicles in 1283-1284. It was completely destroyed by the Mongols in 1284. Then, over hundreds of years, there was no mention of this settlement.
The village Maliye Studyonki Lipsky was first mentioned in chronicles in the first half of the 17th century. Later, in 1703, cast iron factories were built near the settlement for the needs of the Russian navy and the army by the order of the Russian tsar Peter the Great. At that time these factories ranked second in Russia in iron smelting. This year is considered the founding year of Lipetsk.
In 1709, the settlement was renamed Lipskiye Zavody. In 1779, by decree of Catherine II, it received the status of a county town of the Tambov governorship (since 1796 - the Tambov province) and a new name - Lipetsk. The population of the town was about 6 thousand people. In 1781, the town received its own coat of arms with a spreading lime tree - a symbol of antiquity and prosperity.
More Historical Facts…
In 1795, Lipskiye factories were closed after the construction of new iron and steel works in the south of Russia. In this regard, the development of Lipetsk slowed down considerably. In 1806, a great fire destroyed most of the wooden buildings of the town. After the fire, the construction of the town was carried out by the General Plan, with straight wide streets and buildings of stone and brick.
In the early 19th century, the Lipetsk resort became very popular among the nobility, because, since 1805 (the period of the Napoleonic wars in Europe), they had limited treatment options abroad. In 1862, the town had 11,659 inhabitants, eight Orthodox churches, three schools, a hospital and a post office.
The revival of Lipetsk began in the late 19th - early 20th century, when, due to the expansion of railway construction, the Russian and foreign businessmen decided to use the ore deposits located near the city. In 1902, the construction of two blast furnaces was completed. It was the beginning of the steel works “Svobodny Sokol”.
In 1931, the construction of a new giant plant began - Novolipetsk Iron and Steel Works (NLMZ, today - Novolipetsk Steel or NLMK). It was the turning point in the history of Lipetsk. The city became one of the largest industrial center in the USSR.
In 1943, during the Second World War, in record time, Lipetsk Tractor Plant was built. More than 7,000 residents of the city were killed on the battlefields. In 1954, the Lipetsk region was created, and the city received the status of its center. Lipetsk began to develop as a major industrial and cultural center. In 1957, the city’s population reached 157,000 people, in 1970 - 289,000.
Today, Lipetsk is known as a major producer of steel and rolled steel (Novolipetsk Steel, “Svobodny Sokol”), household appliances (Indesit Company), as well as a center for training pilots of the Russian aviation (Lipetsk aviation center). The city has an aerobatic team “Russian Falcons”.
Regional Palace of Culture in Lipetsk
City Day is one of the most widely celebrated holidays in the city (the third Sunday of July). Metallurgist Day is also celebrated on this day in Russia.
The climate is continental. The average temperature in January is minus 8 degrees Celsius, in July - plus 20 degrees Celsius.
Public transportation is presented by buses, trolley buses, and trams. Lipetsk airport operates flights to Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Sochi.
Main industries of Lipetsk are machinery, metallurgy, metalworking, chemical, clothing, food and others. The largest enterprise of the region is Novolipetsk Steel Plant (NLMK). About 50,000 people are working there. Novolipetsk Steel is the main source of air pollution in the city.
Lipetsk is also known as a balneological and mud bath resort (the first resort was opened in 1805).
Lipetsk places of interest
The central architectural ensemble of Lipetsk was formed at Sobornaya (Cathedral) Square in 1958. It includes the House of Soviets, the building of an apartment house with the hotel “Tsentralnaya”, Church of the Nativity (1791-1842), a monument to Lenin, as well as the former building of the parochial school.
Lipetsk has a number of parks and natural monuments. Nizhniy (Lower) Park is the largest and most popular park of the city. It is located in the central part of Lipetsk at the foot of Sobornaya Mountain. The park, laid out near the resort “Lipetsk mineral water” in 1809, has a status of natural monument. Also, there is a zoo in the park. Verkhniy (Upper) Park, located along Lenin Street, has a status of natural monument too.
Lipetsk museums and exhibition halls
- Lipetsk Regional Museum of Local Lore (Lenin Street, 25),
- Lipetsk Regional Art Gallery (Lenin Street, 7a),
- The Museum of Folk and Decorative Art (Kosmonavtov Street, 2),
- Art Museum named after V.S. Sorokin - Master’s House (Lenin Street, 2),
- The House-Museum of G.V. Plekhanov (Plekhanov Street, 36),
- The Museum of the History of NLMK (?Metallurgists Square, 5),
- Lipetsk Regional Exhibition Hall (Lenin Street, 9),
- Lipetsk Center for Contemporary Art (Kosmonavtov Street, 98).
Lipetsk theatres and concert halls
- Lipetsk State Academic Drama Theater named after L.N. Tolstoy (Theater Square, 2). The current theater building was constructed by the architect M.P. Bubnov in 1968. Today, it is one of the symbols of Lipetsk;
- Lipetsk Drama Theater (Konstantinova Square, 3);
- Lipetsk State Puppet Theater (Gagarin Street, 74);
- The Concert Hall “October” (Peter the Great Square, 6);
- Lipetsk Regional Philharmonic (Frunze Street, 7).