Kostroma is an administrative center and capital of Kostroma region of Russia. The city is standing on the both banks of the Volga River. Kostroma is a large river port. There is also an airport in the city. Kostroma is located about 350 km northeast of Moscow.
Kostroma population is 269,000 (2012), land area - 145 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 4942, the postal codes - 156000-156xxx.
Kostroma was first time mentioned in chronicles in 1213. The official foundation date of Kostroma is believed to be 1152 and the founder is Yury Dolgoruky. In 1238, the town was captured and sacked by Mongols army. Later Kostroma was bought by Moscow state tsar Ivan I.
Because of its location Kostroma was the place of Moscow state leaders retreat during Moscow sieges in 1382, 1408 and 1433. The town was growing quickly in the 16th century. One of the possible reasons is the creation of Moscow Company trading with Dutch and English merchants through Archangel town port located on the north of Moscow state.
Kostroma was captured by Polish armies two times. One of the most known heroes of wars with Poles is peasant Ivan Susanin. There are several monuments dedicated to him in the city.
In 1612, Kostroma was the place where Moscow embassy offered Michael Romanov the Russian crown. It was the end of the Russian “Time of Troubles” and the beginning of Romanov’s dynasty reigning on the throne of Russia.
The city was heavily damaged during the fire in 1773. After the fire Kostroma was completely rebuilt. All streets of the city were radiating from a single point located near the river.
In the past Kostroma was traditionally a textile city, nowadays it is a modern industrial center. Machine building and metal-working, electronics and tool-building, furniture and light industries, power engineering, wood-processing, forest, jewelry industries - these are branches characterizing new industrial outlook of the city.
Kostroma is an important transportation juncture. It is crossed by highway of federal importance Moscow - Yaroslavl - Kirov - Perm - Ekaterinburg. The city has a river port and an airport.
Kostroma was celebrating its 855th anniversary in 2007. It is one of the cities on the well-known tourist route “Golden Ring of Russia”.
The historical structure of planning is preserved in the old part of the city. The general plan of Kostroma was affirmed by Emperor Catherine II in 1781.
Among the most interesting architectural complexes and monasteries are:
- Ipatyevsky monastery founded at the end of the 13th century. Mikhail Romanov lived there in 1613 before he was enthroned. Ipatyevsky monastery is famous for its boyar Godunovs clan burial-vault and famous Ipatyevsky chronicle;
- Epiphany-Anastasya monastery;
- Resurrection church on the Debra, a masterpiece of the 17th century architecture, it is considered to be the pearl of Upper Volga region;
- Museum of wooden architecture;
- Civil architecture of the early 19th century (1800-1820) - Trade rows;
- Borshyov house;
- Guard-house and fire-observation Tower.
Also some buildings of civil architecture of the 20th century are worth seeing like Communications House (1934) and The Exhibition of Economic Achievements.
Among the environmental places of interest is a unique elk-farm.
All in all there are 535 monuments of history and culture in Kostroma including 60 monuments of federal importance and 475 - of regional one.