Kirov (also known as Vyatka and Khlynov) is one of the oldest cities in Russia, the capital the Kirov region. It is a major historical, cultural, industrial, and scientific center standing on the banks of the Vyatka River, 896 km north-east of Moscow.
The population of Kirov is about 493,300 (2015), the area - 170 sq. km.
The phone code - +7 8332, the postal codes - 610000-610926.
The first settlements on the territory of the present city appeared about 2.5 thousand years ago. In the first millennium BC., the area was inhabited by the ancestors of the Udmurt and Komi. Major settlements were located along the banks of Chepets, Moloma, and Vyatka rivers.
According to “The tale of Vyatka country” (the end of the 17th century), Vyatka settlement was founded by people from Novogord in 1181. The first mention of it as a town dates back to 1374.
In 1455-1457, a wooden fortress (kremlin) was built in the town; the fortress was called Khlynov, hence the new name of the place. Khlynov became part of the Moscow state in 1489.
More Historical Facts…
In 1551-1552, troops from Khlynov took part in the campaign of Ivan the Terrible against the Kazan Tatars. In 1554 and 1556, they also took part in the campaigns against the Khanate of Astrakhan. As a result of these campaigns, Khlynov returned the lands previously occupied by the Golden Horde, and then the Tatar khanates.
Khlynov was known all over Russia for its clay statuettes and whistles. In 1689, the Assumption Cathedral of Trifonov Monastery was built. It was one of the first stone buildings in Khlynov. Today, the cathedral is the oldest preserved monument in Kirov.
The town was renamed Vyatka by the order of the Russian Empress Catherine the Great in 1781. Vyatka was a place of exile for Alexander Herzen and Mikhail Saltikov-Shedrin. The Trans-Siberian Railway passed through Vyatka. In 1923, the population of Vyatka for the first time exceeded 50 thousand people.
In December 1934, the city was renamed after the Soviet leader Sergey Kirov, assassinated on December 1, 1934. In 1962, the first bridge across the Vyatka River was built. In 1967, the population of Kirov for the first time exceeded 300 thousand people.
Kirov is located in the valley of the Vyatka River, in the north-east of the European part of Russia, in the area of taiga forests.
The territory of the city belongs to the continental climate. Because of the proximity to the Arctic Ocean, invasions of cold air are possible, causing severe frosts in winters and sharp coolings in summers. The average temperature in January is minus 11.9 degrees Celsius, in July - plus 18.9 degrees Celsius.
Kirov is a large transport hub. The federal highway A119 “Vyatka” goes near it. The city is also crossed by Severny (Northern) (from Yaroslavl) and Novy (New) (from Nizhny Novgorod) branches of the Trans-Siberian Railway. The nearest major cities are: Kazan - 409 km, Perm - 471 km, Nizhny Novgorod - 563 km, Ufa - 734 km, Samara - 770 km.
“Pobedilovo” airport, located about 22 km from the city, offers regular flights to Moscow, Sochi, and Naryan-Mar. Also, there is a river port.
The main industries are light, machine building, metallurgy and timber. There are several museums, theaters, and universities in the city.
Kirov places of interest
Trinity Alexander Nevsky Monastery in Kirov
Church of the Nativity of John the Baptist in Kirov
Assumption Trifonov Monastery in Kirov
Kirov is one of the most historical cities in Russia. There are 11 historical monuments, 22 architectural monuments, 3 art monuments and 1 archaeological monument of federal importance.
Assumption Trifonov Monastery, located on the embankment of the Vyatka River, is one of the oldest cultural monuments and main sights of Kirov. In the center of it, you can find the Cathedral of the Assumption, built in 1689. In the 1990s, a number of ensemble buildings were restored after being destroyed during the Soviet time. Today, it is a functioning monastery.
Alexandrovsky Garden is a fine example of park architecture of provincial classicism. It was founded in 1825, when Emperor Alexander I visited Vyatka.
Serafim Sarovsky Church was built in 1906. In 1937-1941, the church was used as an anti-religious museum. In 1942, worship services were resumed and lasted until 1991. In Soviet times, it was the only open church in Kirov.
museums and theaters…
Other objects of cultural heritage in Kirov
- Bulychev’s Mansion built under the direction of the Vyatka architect I.A. Charushin (Lenina Street, 96),
- Monument of civil architecture “Prikaznaya izba” (Drelevskogo Street, 4b),
- Kirov fire station (Svobody Street, 113),
- Monument to V.M. Vasnetsov and A.M. Vasnetsov (Karl Marx Street, 70),
- Central Hotel (Lenina Street, 80),
- The building of the gymnasium #2 (Svobody Street, 76/11),
- Klabukov’s Store (Spasskaya Street, 15),
- Zhmakina’s House - an architectural monument of the 19th century (Spasskaya Street, 41a),
- The former Alexander Catholic Church (Derendyaeva Street, 46),
- House of Soviets (Karl Liebknecht Street, 69),
- Levitsky’s House (Karl Marx Street, 79),
- Church of John the Baptist (Svobody Street, 54v),
- Railway station “Vyatka”.
- Kirov Regional Museum of Local Study (Spasskaya Street, 6);
- Vyatsky Art Museum named after V.M. Vasnetsov and A.M. Vasnetsov, one of the oldest in Russia, founded by local artists in 1910 (Karl Marx Street, 70);
- The Museum of Aviation and Space named after K.E. Tsiolkovsky (Preobrazhenskaya Street, 16);
- Vyatka Kunstkamera (Moskovskaya Street, 12a);
- Vyatka Museum of Folk Arts and Crafts (Spasskaya Street, 4b),
- Kirov Diorama (Gorky Street, 32);
- The House-Museum of M.E. Saltykov-Shedrin (Lenin Street, 93);
- The Museum of A.S. Grin (Volodarskiy Street, 44);
- The House-Museum of N.N. Khokhryakov (Kopanskiy Lane, 4);
- Kirov Planetarium (Cosmonaut Volkov Street, 6);
- Vyatka Paleontological Museum (Spasskaya Street, 22).
- Kirov Drama Theatre named after S.M. Kirov (Moskovskaya Street, 37),
- Kirov State Puppet Theater (Spasskaya Street, 22),
- Kirov State Youth Theater “Theater on Spasskaya” (Spasskaya Street, 17),
- Vyatka Philharmonic (Lenin Street, 102b),
- Kirov State Circus (Oktyabrskiy Avenue, 147).