Tomsk region overview
Tomsk oblast (region) (also spelled Tomskaya) lies in the south-east of West-Siberian plain (Siberian Federal District). Most of Tomsk region territory is inaccessible because it is covered with taiga woods. Capital city of the region is Tomsk.
Tomsk region population is about 1,064,000 (2012); land area - 314,391 sq. km.
Tomsk region history
The development of the territory which now belongs to Tomsk region began in the early 17th century. Tomsk was built as a fortress on the Tom River in 1604. In 1629, the settlement became the center of the region and then trade center of Siberia.
In 1804, Tomsk was the center of Tomsk province. By the end of the 19th century, Tomsk became a big economic and cultural center of Siberia. Tomsk oblast was established in 1944.
Tomsk region natural resources
There are various natural deposits in Tomsk province: oil, gas, metallic and non-metallic deposits, brown coal, peat, fresh drinking water, mineral, thermal and technical underground waters.
Hydrocarbons are the most important energy supply sources which provide the highest level of economy and investment growth. Tomsk region is a part of West-Siberian oil- and gas-bearing province among the leading regions of Russia in oil- and gas-extracting. The lands having prospects and divided into 5 oil- and gas-bearing regions contain up to 7,5 billion tons of hydrocarbons.
As for metallic natural deposits Tomsk region has large resources of iron ores which are the basis of its mining and processing industries future development. Total resources of iron ores are 85,9 billion tons.
Deposits of gold, zinc and bauxites are found in the south-east of the region. Within this range of metals gold is the main item of geological prospecting. The forecast of the total gold resources are about 105 tons.
Non-metallic natural deposits which serve as the raw base for processing industries are presented by industrial and mining chemical raw and construction materials. These deposits are mostly located in the south-east of the province. The most representative kinds among this group of natural deposits are refractory clays and quartz glass sands.
Tomsk province is the second in Russia in peat resources. They are used extremely little as well as coming along with peat natural deposits, such as phosphates and carbonates. Brown coal is still little prospected and unused although it is a valuable chemical and energy supply source.
Large resources of fresh underground water are the main source of economical water supply. 4 deposits of mineral water have been prospected for curing resorts. Forests are also among the most significant assets of Tomsk region: about 20% of West Siberian forest resources are located there.
Tomsk region nature
Tomsk region climate, economics
The climate differs greatly in the southern and northern areas of Tomsk region. Almost all the territory of the region is located within taiga zone.
The climate is of moderate continental type and is remarkable for its large amplitudes within day and night and a year and besides, for a longer winter period. The year average temperature is 0,6 degrees Celsius below zero, in July - 18,1 degrees C above zero, in January 19,2 degrees C below zero.
The climate in the northern part of the region is more severe and winters are longer.
Largest cities and towns of the region are Tomsk (539,000), Seversk (108,000), Strezhevoy (42,000), Asino (25,000), Kolpashevo (24,000). The province is divided into 16 districts, 4 towns of regional submission, 14 town settlements, 199 villages.
Industry makes up about half of regional GDP, while agriculture contributes 19% and construction 13%.
Leading industries are as follows: machine-building and metal-working, forest and oil. All the machine-building and metal-working plants are located mainly in Tomsk and partly in Kolpashevo and Seversk.
Oil is extracted mainly in the north-west and west of the region. A large oil-processing plant is located near Tomsk. Tomsk region major export items are: oil, methanol, machines and equipment.
Agricultural fields occupy about 5% of Tomsk region territory. Wheat, flax and vegetables are grown in small amounts there. Cattle-, pig-, sheep-, and goat-breeding are presented as well as poultry farming. Fur trade (squirrel, sable, musk-rats) and fur-breeding (silver-black fox) are developed.