Omsk region overview
Omsk oblast (region) (also spelled Omskaya) is located in the southeastern part of Siberia, part of Siberian Federal District. The administrative center is Omsk city. The region borders on Kazakhstan on its southern border.
Omsk region has the population of about 1,974,000 (2012), land area - 141,140 sq. km.
Omsk region history
The territory of the Middle Irtysh which is occupied by Omsk region started being inhabited by ancient people over 14,000 years ago. This area became the place of numerous migrations of different peoples, of interpenetration of forest and steppe cultures.
In the Middle Ages, the territory of Western Siberia was a part of various nomad empires - from West-Turkish Khaganate to Siberian Khaganate.
A lot of peoples’ histories are connected with Omsk region - of Indo-European, Finno-Ugric, Mongol and Turkish peoples. The history of inhabiting the Irtysh area by the Russians is connected first of all with legendary Yermak although even before him, in the 15th century, Russian merchants from the Urals visited the Siberian khanate.
In the early 18th century, great changes made by Peter I urged large expenses. And Tsar paid attention to the East which was rather typical for his time. He sent a Cossack troop commanded by lieutenant-colonel I.D.Bukhgolts from Tobolsk town up the river Irtysh to search gold-placer mines.
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The expedition failed facing the resistance of nomad-Dzhungars. They had to step back and on the Irtysh they founded the Omsk fortress in the mouth of the river Om. Thus, in 1716, it was the start of the present Omsk.
With arrangement of Omsk fortress, Russian peasants began assimilating the neighboring lands. To the south of Omsk, a line of installations was constructed for defense from nomads - they were advanced posts.
In 1782, Omsk fortress was reformed into a town. Omsk district was formed on the basis of the southern part of Tarsky district and, in 1785, the town of Omsk was given a coat of arms.
Omsk became a remarkable center of researching Siberia and Central Asia. The history of the region like most of other Siberian regions is inseparably linked with the history of political exile.
In the 19th century, the people exiled to Siberia were the Decembrists, Petrashevts, Narodniki, representatives of other revolutionary parties and organizations, participants of Polish national movement.
These people influenced the Siberian population not only by their propaganda, but by their education, ideological views, their wide scientific interests and social inquires. Among the prisoners in Omsk jail there was great Russian writer F.M.Dostoyevsky.
The end of the 19th - the early 20th centuries were a period of great changes for Siberia. The colonization of the peasants caused a sharp increase of in the economics of the region, first of all its agricultural sector.
The Great Siberian railway provided including the local economy into the system of Russian and European markets. Due to its favorable economical and geographical location - at the intersection of the Siberian railway and the river Irtysh, among a wide agricultural area - Omsk rapidly turned into a large transport-, trade- and industrial center of Western Siberia. Omsk became the largest city in Siberia.
The years of the World War II became an important stage in the development of Omsk and the region. About 100 industrial plants evacuated from the European part of the country were moved to the city. They became the basis of rapid progress made by machine-building industry of Omsk.
After the war, in 1954-1956, virgin soils were cultivated and highly profitable crops and milk and meat producing plants were built in the south of the region, a developed net of agricultural settlements was constructed. In 1949, the first in Siberia oil processing plant was constructed and Omsk became the largest center of oil chemistry in the country.
Omsk region views
Omsk region country scenery
Omsk region facts
The territory of Omsk province stretches 600 km from the south to the north and 300 km from the west to the east. The main river is the Irtysh and its tributaries the Ishim, Om, Osha and Tara.
There are numerous lakes on the territory of the region (Saltaim, Tenis, Ik, Ebeyty). The province is located on West-Siberian valley, with steppes in the south which turn into forest steppes, forests and marshy tundra in the north.
The climate of the region is of continental type. The average temperature in January is 19-20 degrees C below zero, in July - 17-18 degrees C above zero in the northern part and plus 19 degrees C in the south.
Largest cities and towns of the region are Omsk (1,157,000), Tara (27,000), Isylkul (24,000), Kalachinsk (23,000).
From 1998, gas fields developing began in Omsk region. Deposits of brown coal and iron ores are prospected. As the province is one of the largest oil chemical areas in Russia, oil is considered the main raw resource of the region industry.
The industrial and agricultural plants and transportation influence the nature of the region. The air, water, soil are polluted; rare species of plants and animals vanish; the productivity of natural meadow lands decreases; small rivers and marshlands disappear.
In order to improve the environment the system of protected natural territories is being created. Protected territories make about 80%. A lot of natural monuments, recreation resources are various and substantial, Krasnoyarsko-Chernoluchinskaya resort area is well known.