Altay Republic overview
Altay (other spellings Altai, Altaj) republic is a federal subject of the Russian Federation, part of Siberian Federal District. The administrative center of the region is Gorno-Altaisk.
There is also Altay Krai, another federal subject of Russia, bordering Altay Republic in the west. The republic is located in the Asia center. The nature is a combination of Altay mountains, Siberian taiga, Kazakhstan steppes and Mongolia semi-deserts.
Altay Republic has the population of 210,000 (2012); land area - 92,903 sq. km.
Altay Republic territory
Altay Republic is known for its mountainous terrain. Altay mountains cover a large part of the region. The highest peak is Belukha mount (about 4,506 meters). It is the highest peak in Siberia. One of the most important resources of Altay republic is water.
Numerous mineral and hot springs are becoming more and more popular among travelers and local people for their therapeutic effects. The climate of the region is of sharp continental type, with hot summers and long frosty winters.
Altay Republic beautiful nature
Altay Republic history
First people inhabited the Altay valleys about 1,5 million years ago. Such is the supposed age of world-known Ulalinskaya site discovered in Gorno-Altaysk. In the 8th-3rd centuries B.C., Altay region was inhabited by Skyphs-Pazyrykts - the founders of Altay animal style.
Hun-Sarmat period in the history of the region began at the end of the 3rd century B.C. From the 6th century B.C., descendants of Huns, ancestors of Altays - Turkic people became the rulers of Central Asia.
Preserved elements of Altay animal style in traditional arts of current homogeneous peoples speak in favor of Altay tribes connections with the rest ancient peoples of the Eurasian continent.
Altay is a fore-homeland of all the current Turkic peoples of the world, it’s here that ancient Turkic people founded their state - kaganate in 552. The original Turkic language was formed here and later on it spread among all the peoples of kaganate thanks to appearance of written language.
All these facts lead to a term Altay family of languages in current scientific world. This family comprises 3 large groups of languages - Japanese-Korean, Tungus-Manchzhurian, Turkish-Mongolian and thus gave a chance for a new scientific branch in world science - altayistics.
Due to its geopolitical location - the center of Eurasia - Altay united different ethnicities and cultures in all historical epochs. For a long time Altay was the center of Kalmyk state - Dzhungar khanate. Russian explorers called Altays “white Kalmyks”.
The southern Altays were ruled by Dzhungars till 1756 and after Dzhungar state collapsed they became the citizens of the Russian state. Unlike them the northern Altays joined Russian state much earlier. After Altay population joined powerful Russia, it was safe from foreign intruders and most important - it avoided being annihilated by Tsyn army.
Soviet power in the region was established by the end of 1919. On June 1, 1922, the Oyrot autonomous region was formed as a part of Altay krai, it was renamed Gorno (Mountainous)-Alatisky autonomous region on January 7, 1948; from October 25, 1990, it became Gorno-Alatiskaya ASSR, from July 3, 1991 - Gorno-Alatiskaya SSR, from May 1992 - the Republic of Gorny Altay, since December 12, 1993 - the Republic of Altay.
At present the Republic has its Constitution adopted on June 7, 1997. Russian and Altay languages are the official languages in the Republic.
Altay Republic views
Altay Republic economics
Agriculture plays important role in Altay Republic economics. Other industries include gold mining, non-ferrous metallurgy and timber.
A lot of new hotels and resorts appeared in Altay Republic last years, so tourism industry is growing fast. The most popular tourist destinations are concentrated in the northern part of the region.
Altay Republic attractions
Among the most well-known tourist attractions are Belokurikha (mineral water springs), Aiya Lake and beautiful Chemal region. People who are more adventurous visit the remote Teletskoye Lake and Belukha Mount in the southern part of Altay Republic.