Novosibirsk region overview
Novosibirsk oblast (region) (also spelled Novosybirsk, Novosibirskaya) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation, part of Siberian Federal District.
The administrative center and capital city is Novosibirsk. The region is situated between two main rivers: the Ob and the Irtysh.
Novosibirsk region population is about 2,709,000 (2012) on the land area of 177,756 sq. km.
Novosibirsk region facts
Novosibirsk region is located in the south-east of West-Siberian plain. Main rivers of the province are the Ob and the Om. Novosibirsk water reservoir is formed by Novosibirsk power station dam (“The Ob Sea”). The north and north-east of the province are occupied by the largest in the world Vasyugan marshlands.
The climate of the region is of sharp continental type, the average temperature in January is 16 degrees Celsius below zero in the south and 20 degrees C below zero in northern districts. The average temperature in July - 18-20 degrees C above zero. The absolute max is 37 degrees C above zero and min - 51 degrees C below zero.
There are about three thousands lakes on the territory of the region. The largest lakes are Chany, Ubinskoye, Sartlan. The largest cities and towns are Novosibirsk (1,525,000), Berdsk (100,000), Iskitim (59,000), Kuybishev (44,000). Novosibirsk region borders on Kazakhstan (Pavlodar region) on the south.
Novosibirsk region history
In spite of favorable climate, from a Siberian point of view, the territory of Novosibirsk province began being inhabited by Russians late enough. Barabin Tatars (about 10,000 at present) are the indigenous population of Novosibirsk region territory.
Nowadays they live in western districts of the region. They have always suffered permanent attacks of the Kalmyks (the Oyrates and Teleuts).
Novosibirsk region views
Nowosibirsk region nature
Russian villages were under this threat too, that’s why people preferred to settle in the north, near Tomsk. Only at the end of the 17th century, Novosibirsk province began attracting migrants.
The first settlement was founded by the boyar son Alexey Kruglik in 1695 - later this settlement became the village of Kruglikovo still existing in Bolotninsky district. Soon some more villages were founded.
In the early 18th century, Berdsky stockaded town was built, it provided safety. As the risk of nomad attacks decreased the migrants grew in number although a lot of them didn’t have an official permission for migration and were persecuted to some extent.
In 1722, the Siberian line of fortresses along the river Irtysh was constructed. The population was busy mainly in soil tilling, fishing, hunting and being carriers.
In the early 19th century, famous Ural manufacturer Akinfiy Demidov constructed two copper melting plants - Kolyvansky and Barnaulsky. In 1893, due to the construction of Trans-Siberian railway and the railway bridge across the River Ob Alexandrovsky settlement was constructed (from 1895 - Novonikolayevsky).
Thanks to convenient geographical location (Trans-Siberian railway, navigable river the Ob and transportation ways connecting Siberia with the European part of the Russian Empire) its importance in trade grew rapidly. In 1909, Novonikolayevsk became a city, in 1925, it was renamed into Novosibirsk.
Till 1921, the territory of Novosibirsk oblast was a part of Tomsk gubernia, from 1921 to 1925 - of Novonikolayevsk gubernia, from 1925 to 1930 - of Siberian krai, from 1930 to 1937 - of West Siberian krai.
On September 28, 1937, West Siberian krai was divided into Novosibirsk oblast and Altaysky krai. This date is considered the official date of the region formation.
Novosibirsk region natural resources, economics
All in all there are 523 deposits in Novosibirsk region, at present 83 are being in action. Such deposits as coal, refractory clay, peat have been prospected in the province. High quality anthracite is being mined. Gas and oil fields are found in the north-west of the region. There are considerable resources of underground thermal and mineral waters.
Novosibirsk region is one of the most industrially developed regions in Siberia: it produces about 10% of all the industrial output, the main part of it is produced by heavy industry located in Novosibirsk, Iskitim and Berdsk.
Processing branches prevail in industrial structure. About 22% - metal processing and machine building; 25% - food industry; 18% - power engineering and about 10% - non-ferrous metallurgy. About 50 plants producing military goods are located in the region. Most of them are in Novosibirsk which is among the ten biggest industrial centers of Russia.
Crops and vegetables are grown, milk and meat cattle-breeding, poultry farming and bee-keeping are developed. The production of flax plays an important role. The territory of the region is not fully developed, but it possesses about 25% of all agricultural lands in Western Siberia.
There are 12 airports in the region, “Tolmachovo” and “Novosibirsk” are the federal ones.
Federal highways M 51,M 52, M 53 cross the region as well as highways P 380, P 384. There is a considerable number of sanatoriums and curing resorts in the province.