Novosibirsk (other spellings are Nowosibirsk, Novosybirsk) is a city, administrative center and capital of Novosibirsk oblast and Siberian Federal District of Russia.
It is the third city of Russia by population after Moscow and St. Petersburg. Novosibirsk is business, cultural, industrial, scientific, trade and transport center of Siberia.
Novosibirsk population is about 1,525,000 (2012), land area - 502 sq. km.
The phone code is - +7 383, postal codes are 630000-630xxx.
Novosibirsk is a major transportation junction connecting Siberia, Far East, Middle Asia regions with European part of Russia. The city is served by international airport “Tolmachevo” (various flights to Russian, European and Asian cities). Trans-Siberian Railway is going through the city. Novosibirsk is also an important port on the Ob River.
Main industries of the city are machine building, electric power generating, metallurgy and food. Novosibirsk is home for Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian division located like almost all other higher education institutes in separate suburb named Akademgorodok (meaning “The Town of Academy”).
Among the main attractions of the city is Novosibirsk Zoo. It is known not only as a place of interest for tourists but as an important scientific institution. There are about four thousands of animal species living in the zoo.
Novosibirsk was founded in 1893. It was a settlement on a place where the bridge over the Ob River was planned to build during the construction of Trans-Siberian Railway. The settlement was named Novonikolayevsk after the Russian Empire Tsar Nicholas II and Saint Nicholas.
In 1897, the building of the bridge was finished making town the most important transport junction of the region. Later, in the beginning of the 20th century, the town became even more important with building Turkestan-Siberia Railway connecting Siberia with Central Asia and Caspian Sea regions.
Novonikolayevsk population was about 7,800 in 1897. Ten years later the population was 47,000 and Novonikolayevsk received town status. Before the Russian Revolution of 1917, the population of the town was about 80,000. Novonikolayevsk was the largest industrial center of Siberia.
Soviet power was established in December 1917. Later, in May 1918, the city was captured by White Army forces together with Czechoslovak was prisoners. Soviet power was established again in 1919 when Red Army entered the city. During the Russian Civil War, the bridge over the Ob River was destroyed and the population began to decline.
In 1926, the city received its current name - Novosibirsk (meaning “New City in Siberia”). Novosibirsk again became an industrial center of Siberia with completing the industrialization plan of Stalin. The city received several new large facilities of heavy industry, food processing and power generation. It was the reason of why Novosibirsk received nickname “Siberian Chicago”.
In 1954, the population of Novosibirsk was about 290,000. The city became the largest settlement of Siberia. That year Kommunalny bridge was constructed replacing the original bridge over the Ob River (one part of it was saved as the monument).
The city was growing quickly and so did its power demand. It was one of the reasons of building Novosibirsk hydro power station. The giant water reservoir of the station is known as Ob Sea today.
In 1957, the special town for scientific research was founded about 30 km away from Novosibirsk. The town received name Akademgorodok. It became the home for Soviet Academy of Sciences Siberian division. There were also fourteen other universities and various research institutions located in Akademgorodok.
The population of Novosibirsk reached one million in 1962 making it the world youngest city with such a large population. First metro system in Siberia was built in the city in 1985.