Novosibirsk is a city in Russia, the capital of the Novosibirsk region and Siberian Federal District. It is the third largest city of the country after Moscow and St. Petersburg, one of the largest Russian business, cultural, industrial, scientific, trade, and transport centers.
The population of Novosibirsk is about 1,567,000 (2015), the area - 505 sq. km.
The phone code - +7 383, the postal codes - 630000-630901.
Novosibirsk was founded in 1893. It was a settlement on a place where the bridge over the Ob River was planned to be built during construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. The settlement was named Novonikolayevsk after the Russian Empire Tsar Nicholas II and St. Nicholas.
In 1897, the bridge was completed that made Novonikolayevsk the most important transport hub of the region. Later, in the beginning of the 20th century, it became even more important with the construction of the Turkestan-Siberian Railway connecting Siberia with Central Asia and the Caspian Sea region.
In 1897, Novonikolayevsk population was about 7,800. In 1903, the settlement became a town. By 1917, the population reached 80,000 people. Novonikolayevsk was the largest industrial center of Siberia.
More Historical Facts…
Soviet power was established in December 1917. Later, in May 1918, the city was captured by the White Army together with Czechoslovak war prisoners. Soviet power was established again in 1919, when the Red Army entered the city. During the Russian Civil War, the bridge over the Ob River was destroyed and the population began to decline.
In 1926, the city received its current name - Novosibirsk (meaning “a new city in Siberia”). Novosibirsk again became a large industrial center of Siberia during Stalin’s industrialization. The city received several new large facilities of heavy industry, food processing and power generation. It was the reason why Novosibirsk earned the nickname “Siberian Chicago”.
In 1954, the population of Novosibirsk was about 290,000. It became the largest city in Siberia. In the same year, Kommunalny Bridge was constructed replacing the original bridge over the Ob River (one part of it was saved as a historical monument).
The city was growing quickly and so did its power demand. It was one of the reasons of building Novosibirsk hydro power station. The giant water reservoir of the station is known as the Ob Sea today.
In 1957, a special town for scientific research was founded about 30 km away from Novosibirsk. The town received the name Akademgorodok (“the town of academicians”). It became home to the Siberian branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Also fourteen other universities and various research institutions moved to Akademgorodok.
The population of Novosibirsk reached one million in 1962, making it the youngest city in the world with such a large population. The first metro system in Siberia was built in the city in 1985.
In the 21st century, Novosibirsk became the first regional Russian city with the population of over 1.5 million people.
The building of the West-Siberian Railway in Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk old architecture
Novosibirsk is located in the south-eastern part of the West Siberian Plain, near the reservoir formed by the dam of the Novosibirsk hydroelectric power station. The city has a continental climate. The average temperature in January is minus 16.5 degrees Celsius, in July - plus 19.4 degrees Celsius.
Novosibirsk City Day is officially celebrated on the last Sunday in June. The largest hotels in Novosibirsk are Marins Park Hotel Novosibirsk, Hotel River Park (Ob hotel), Azimut Hotel Siberia, Tsentralnaya (Central) Hotel, Zolotaya Dolina (Golden Valley) in Akademgorodok. Also the city has hotels of such global hotel chains as Swissotel, Hilton Hotels, Radisson, Marriott International, and others.
It is a major transport hub connecting Siberia, the Far East, Central Asia with the European part of Russia. The city is served by the international airport “Tolmachevo” located 17 km from the center of Novosibirsk. The airport offers regular passenger flights to major cities of Russia, countries of the former Soviet Union, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Bulgaria, Germany, Spain, China, Czech Republic, Greece, Cyprus, Vietnam, Thailand. The Trans-Siberian Railway passes through the city. Novosibirsk is also an important port on the Ob River.
The main industries are machine building, electric power generation, metallurgy, and food. Novosibirsk is home to the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences located like almost all other higher education institutes in a separate suburb named Akademgorodok (meaning “the town of academicians”).
Novosibirsk power station
Novosibirsk old architecture
Novosibirsk places of interest
The main attractions of Novosibirsk are:
- Novosibirsk railway station;
- Alexander Nevsky Cathedral - the first stone building in the city. Near the cathedral, the main street of Novosibirsk - Krasny (Red) Avenue begins;
- Stokvartirny house (“the house with one hundred apartments”), a house, built by the famous architect A.D. Kryachkov, an architectural monument of federal importance (Krasny Avenue, 16);
- Novosibirsk metro bridge across the Ob River, the longest covered metro bridge in the world (2,145 m);
- Novosibirsk reservoir (“the Ob Sea”), a popular holiday destination, the total area is about 1,082 sq. km.;
- Novosibirsk Zoo has a collection of more than 700 species of animals. It is known not only as an interesting place for locals and tourists, but as an important scientific institution;
- The Central Siberian Botanical Garden - the largest botanical garden in the Asian part of Russia (the total area is more than 1,000 hectares);
- Children’s railway (over 5 km), located in Zaeltsovsky forest, has 5 stations;
- The monument to Alexander III in the park “Gorodskoye nachalo” (“the beginning of the city”) on the Ob River bank;
- The span of the first railway bridge over the Ob River in the park “Gorodskoye nachalo”;
- The monument to Lenin on Lenin Square.
Museums and Theaters…
- Novosibirsk State Art Museum has an extensive collection of paintings, graphics, icons, sculptures, decorative arts and casting (Krasny Avenue, 5 and Sverdlova Street, 10);
- Novosibirsk State History Museum has two exhibitions - historical (Krasny Avenue, 23) and natural (Vokzalnaya Magistral, 11). The historical exposition is located in the center of Novosibirsk, in one of the oldest buildings in the city (an architectural monument of federal importance). Together with the theater of opera and ballet it forms the ensemble of the main square of the Novosibirsk - Lenin Square;
- Novosibirsk Museum of Railway Equipment named after N.A. Akulinin is located between Seyatel railway station of Novosibirsk - Berdsk Railway and Berdsk highway leading from the center of Novosibirsk to Akademgorodok. The museum has a large collection of steam, diesel, and electric locomotives, wagons. In addition, it has a collection of Soviet cars, trucks, tractors, and all-terrain vehicles;
- The museum “Siberian birch bark” has interesting works made of birch bark by modern Siberian artists and craftsmen. The works decorate the interior of the old house (Gorky Street, 16 and Sverdlova Street, 21).
- N. Roerich Museum (Kommunisticheskaya Street, 38);
- Sun Museum is Russia’s only museum dedicated to the signs and symbols of the sun (Akademgorodok, Ivanova Street, 11a);
- The Historical and Architectural Open-Air Museum has unique monuments of wooden architecture and culture of Siberia (Ionosfernaya Street, 6, pavilion #2).
- Novosibirsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater, the largest theater building in Russia, a monument of federal significance, one of the symbols of Novosibirsk (Krasny Avenue, 36);
- Novosibirsk State Drama Theater “Stary Dom” (“Old House”) (Bol’shevistskaya Street, 45.);
- Novosibirsk Academic Youth Theater “Globus” (Kamenskaya Street, 1);
- Novosibirsk State Academic Drama Theater “Krasny Fakel” (“Red Torch”), a monument of architecture (Lenina Street, 19);
- Novosibirsk City Drama Theater “Na levom beregu” (“On the left bank”) (Kotovsky Street, 16);
- Novosibirsk Musical Comedy Theater (Kamenskaya Street, 43);
- Novosibirsk Regional Puppet Theater (Lenina Street, 22);
- Novosibirsk State Philharmonic, the building was constructed in memory of V.I. Lenin (Krasny Avenue, 18/1).