Cherepovets (also spelled Cherepovec) is the largest city of Vologda oblast of Russia. Cherepovets is among those rare cities of Russia which population and level of industrial development is larger than in the capital cities of the regions where they are located.
The city is a river port of the Sheksna River, tributary of the Volga River. The distance from Cherepovets to Moscow is about 505 km and to Saint Petersburg - 460 km by railway and 530 by highway.
Cherepovets has the population of about 315,000 (2012) on the land area of 121 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 8202; the postal codes - 162600-162627.
Cherepovets was first mentioned in documents in 1362. It was the year when Cherepovetsky Resurrection monastery was founded. During 400 years of its history the monastery was destroyed several times by Polish-Lithuanian invaders.
In 1777, Cherepovets became a town. In 1811, the coat-of-arms of Cherepovets was adopted, it was a part of Novgorodskaya gubernia. Since that time Cherepovets became a Russian town with full rights. Main crafts of the citizens were navigation, shipbuilding and -repairing. Due to navigable water ways the trade was developed too.
During first ten years of the 20th century, Cherepovets continued developing. By 1904, the railway station was built. In 1911, the harbor was constructed.
In 1930s, the government of the USSR declared the construction of the Volga-Baltic canal, Rybinsky water reservoir and metallurgic plant in Cherepovets. Unlike most of metallurgic plants built on “raw materials”, that is close to ore deposits, Cherepovetsky plant was built on the crossroads of water- and railways connecting the city with ore deposits of Kola Peninsula and coal of Vorkuta which also enabled convenient removal of the product.
In 1952, the first blast furnace was built and on August 24th, 1955, the first cast iron was produced - this day is considered the birthday of Cherepovets metallurgic plant. In 1952, the first open-hearth furnace was put into operation and it was the start of steel production in Cherepovets.
In 1960s, some more plants were built in the city, the metallurgic plant continued growing and developing. In 1970s, chemical plants were constructed. In 1978, Oktyabsky bridge across the Sheksna River was put into operation, this is one of three large suspension bridges in Russia, a unique construction which was built within 8 years.
In 1986, the fifth blast furnace was put into operation at Cherepovetsky metallurgic plant, it is more known as “Severyanka”. At that time it was the largest blast furnace in the world. In 1986, Cherepovetsky metallurgic plant was reorganized into Cherepovetsky metallurgic group of enterprises. In the early 1990s, joint-stock “Severstal” was formed on its basis.
Economic potential of Cherepovets, first of all, consists of ferrous metallurgy and chemical plants, i.e. of two largest metallurgic plants “Severstal” and Cherepovetsky steel-rolling plant and two chemical plants (“Azot” and “Ammofos”) which produce about 75% of all industrial product of the city.
There are also wood- and metal-working plants as well as food and light industry plants.
The international airport “Cherepovets” is located 25 km from the city, close to the settlement of Botovo. There are inner and international regular and charter flights over Russia, CIS and Europe. Inner flights: Moscow (Vnukovo and Domodedovo airports), Saint Petersburg, Petrozavodsk. International flights: Helsinki (Finland).
Cherepovets railway station
Cherepovets places of interest
Resurrection church is the oldest building in Cherepovets (1756). It is located in the historical part of the city - on Sobornaya gorka - on the place of ancient settlement. Resurrection church is one of the two churches open in Cherepovets.
Another one is Christmas church reconstructed in 1996 after its complete destruction. White church with the high belfry is located in one of recreation areas, close to it there is Victory Park and the beach.
There are 33 art monuments in Cherepovets. Oktyabrsky bridge across the Sheksna River opened in 1979 and being a unique construction at that time is one of the symbols of the city.
In the outskirts there are architectural monuments of federal importance: St.Nickolas wooden church (1673) in Dmitrovo; Virgin Assumption church (1694) in Nelazskoye; estate Vladimirovka (1899) is located in a picturesque place about 40 km from Cherepovets.