Arkhangelsk region overview
Arkhangelsk oblast (region) (also spelled Arkhangelskaya) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation, part of North-West Federal District.
The administrative center and capital city is Arkhangelsk. The region includes large Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya islands.
Arkhangelsk region has the population of about 1,202,000 (2012). The territory of the region is 589,913 sq. km.
Arkhangelsk region territory
Arkhangelsk province is located in the north of East-European lowland. The region is washed by the White, Barents, Pechora and Karsky Seas.
Due to arctic seas and because this territory of Russia is far from warm Gulf Stream, the climate is of continental type, in the north-west - of sea type, in the north-east - of sub-arctic type, that is cool summers and long cold winters.
The cape Fligel (the farthest northern point in Russia and Europe) and cape Zhelaniya (the farthest eastern point in Europe) are located on the territory of Arkhangelsk region.
The weather is very changeable. The average temperature in January is 12-18 degrees Celsius below zero, in July - from 16 in the south to 8-10 degrees C above zero in the north.
Arkhangelsk region borders on Kirov and Vologda regions, Karelia Republic, Komi Republic and the White Sea. The Barents Sea area is highly populated by Polar bears. The largest cities and towns of the region are Arkhangelsk (356,000), Severodvinsk (193,000), Kotlas (60,000), Koryazhma (43,000), Novodvinsk (42,000).
Arkhangelsk region nature
Arkhangelsk region nature view
Arkhangelsk region history
During the Viking times the territory of Arkhangelsk region was known as Biamiya. In the 17th century, it became the part of Novgorod Republic land. From ancient times these places were inhabited by Pomors beside aboriginal peoples.
In the second half of the 15th century, Novgorod lands became a part of Moscow state. In 1584, Arkhangelsk settlement was founded on cape Purnavolok. Till the end of the 17th century, Arkhangelsk remained the main port of Moscow state.
About 80% of foreign trade turnover was made via Arkhangelsk. Bread, hemp, timber, resin, furs and other products were exported from here. The importance of Arkhangelsk grew during Peter I who founded shipbuilding here.
In the early 18th century, the current territory of the province was a part of huge Arkhangelogorodskaya gubernia, and then, till 1784 - a part of Vologodskoye region ruled by governor-general. In 1796, it became Arkhangelsk gubernia.
For a long time only timber and wood processing industries were developed in the province, products were mainly exported. Fishing and hunting were weakly developed. Up to the end of 1920s, most of the territory of current province was a part of Arkhangelsk gubernia.
On January 14, 1929, Arkhangelskaya, Vologodskaya and Severo-Dvinskaya gubernias formed Severny (Northern) krai. On July 15, 1929, Nenets national okrug (at present Nenets autonomous okrug) was formed in the Severny krai.
After Komi ASSR was formed on December 5, 1936, the Severny krai was reformed into Severnaya region which was divided afterwards into Arkhangelsk and Vologda regions on September 23, 1937.
In the 20th century, Arkhangelsk province turned into industrially developed region: pulp and paper industry appeared as well as fishing, flax growing and processing, military industries (space-vehicle launching site at Plesetsk, atomic ship-building in Severodvinsk, nuclear ground on Novaya Zemlya Island). Powerful timber industry was reconstructed and newly built.
Today, Arkhangelsk oblast is one of industrial regions of Russia. It has developed timber, shipbuilding and fishing industries.
Arkhangelsk region features
The historical centers of Arkhangelsk region are Kargopol, Kholmogory and Solvychegodsk settlements. You can find medieval wooden chapels there. Another well-known place of the region is the area of Solovetsky Islands located in the White Sea. Solovetsky Islands are a World Heritage Site now.
Severodvinsk city located in Arkhangelsk region is one of the Russian Navy bases (mostly nuclear submarines).
Russian spaceport Plesetsk is located on the territory of the region. There are another two spaceports in Russia in Kapustin Yar (Astrakhan region) and Svobodny (Amur region).