Vologda (other spelling Wologda) is an administrative center of Vologda region of Russia standing on the banks of the Vologda River. The city is an important cultural, scientific and transport center of Russia. It is famous for its tasty cheese and butter (possibly the best in Russia). There is an airport in the city.
Vologda population is about 315,000 (2012); land area - 116 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 8172; postal codes are 160000-160530.
Vologda settlement first mentioning (small village with one church) happened in 1147 in Novgorod Republic chronicles. The village was surrounded by woods and populated by Novgorod Republic people busy with pulling ships from the Volga River tributary to the Northern Dvina River tributary. It was the way to connect the White and the Caspian seas.
In 1412, the lands of Novogorod state including Vologda village became the part of Moscow state. The settlement was made an outpost on the Northern border of Moscow state. At the end of the 15th century, Vologda was larger and more important than historic center of the area Belozerks town.
At the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century, the town was not only an administrative center of the region but also an important Russian trade center with countries of the West (bread, salt, livestock products). Vologda became one of Russian major military bases during Russian Tsar Peter the Great ruling.
In the 19th century, Vologda was developing quickly and numerous stone and wooden buildings were constructed. There are a lot of them on the streets of present day city.
Among the other attractions of Vologda is Saint Sophia Cathedral (1570). There is a museum occupying Treasury chambers (1659). Also there are baroque churches (the 18th century) and Neoclassical mansions (the 19th century) in the city.
Vologda is the city possessing special historical heritage: there are 224 historical, architectural and cultural monuments on the territory of the city; 128 out of them are protected by the state.
It is one of the most preserved large cities in Russia which historical outlook was formed by harmonic combination of architectural monuments - in stone and wood.
The most famous monuments of Vologda are as follows: Vologda Kremlin, Sofia church, Spaso-Prilutsky monastery, Vladimir churches ensemble, Konstantin and Yelena church, churches with frescos, architectural ensembles of the Stone bridge and Revolution square. Monuments of wooden architecture are of special interest.
There are 10 museums in the city. Vologda State historical, architectural and art museum-reserve is the largest cultural center not only in Vologda but in the whole Russian North.
The other museums: Vologda Kremlin; Peter I house-museum - Petrovsky domik (small house); Architectural and Ethnographical museum of Vologoda region; Vologda butter museum; Museum “Vologda exile”; Vologda regional picture gallery; Modern art gallery “Krasny most (Red bridge)”.
Vologda drama theater, Children and young people theater, puppet show theater “Teremok”, Chamber theater, Valery Gavrilin Philharmonic society, children’s music theater are also among the places of interest.
Among the annual exhibitions of the city are “Russian flax”, “Russian forest”, “Northern gates”.
Vologda laces, goods made of flax and butter are traditional Vologda souvenirs.