Leningrad region overview
Leningrad oblast (region) (also spelled Leningradskaya) is a federal subject of Russia, part of Northwestern Federal District. The capital city and administrative center is Saint Petersburg.
The region was formed as a result of administrative reform of August, 1, 1927. Before that it was Ingermanland (later Saint-Petersburg, Petrograd, Leningrad) oblast, formed in 1708. The institutions of state power are situated in Saint-Petersburg (from 1924 to 1991 - Leningrad, such is the name of the region).
Leningrad region population is about 1,751,000 (2012); land area - 83,908 sq. km.
Leningrad region nature
Leningrad region is located on Eastern-European (Russian) lowland. This explains a small number of hills (mainly 50-150 meters above sea level). The territory of Karelian neck (especially its north-eastern part) differs in broken ground and numerous rocks.
The climate is continental. Sea air provides mild winters with frequent thaws and moderate warm summers.
The region territory except a small south-eastern part refers to the Baltic Sea basin and has a thick, well developed net of rivers. The total length of all the rivers in Leningrad region is about 50 000 km. There are also 1800 lakes, including Ladoga Lake - the largest in Europe. Most part of the region is marshland.
Leningrad region nature
Leningrad region nature view
Leningrad region landscape
Leningrad region history
The most ancient settlements on the territory of present Leningrad province appeared in 9000-8000 B.C. after the glacier retrieved. By the mid 1000 A.D. Finno-Ugric tribes practicing agriculture, cattle-breeding, hunting and fishing lived here. In the 8th century, the Slavs came here.
About 750s, Ladoga appeared (since the 18th century - Old Ladoga) - the most ancient Russian settlement on the territory of Russia. In the 9th-10th centuries, Ladoga became an important political and economic center of Ancient Rus formation. Only at the end of the 10th century it fails to hold its importance, yielding to Novgorod.
In the 13th-14th centuries, people in these lands had to fight with Livon knights and Swedish feudal lords. In 1240, famous Neva Battle took place in which Russian troops headed by Prince Alexander Yaroslavich defeated Swedish troops. In January, 1478, Novgorod republic was put an end as it was captured by Moscow principality.
In the early 17th century, during the Time of Troubles, Russia was cut off the Baltic Sea: the north-eastern part of the country was captured by Sweden. Russia’s try to return the lost territory in 1656-1658 didn’t work.
In the early 18th century, during the Northern War the territory of the region was annexed to Russia and a new capital of the state was built here. In 1708, Ingermanland region was formed. In 1710, it was renamed into Saint-Petersburg, in 1914 - Petrograd, in 1924 - Leningrad region.
During the World War II, most of the territory of the region was occupied and severely suffered. When Leningrad was besieged the only road called “The Road of Life” went through the region connecting the besieged city with the country.
Leningrad region economics
Industry is the basis of Leningrad region economics. Such industries as food industry, transport equipment, oil product, pulp and paper industry prevail. The part of gas line “North Stream” is located in the region.
Leningrad nuclear power station is situated in Sosnovy Bor. Machine-building plants are situated in different towns of the province. The plant “Ford” is situated in Vsevolozhsk, the construction machine producing plant “Caterpillar” - in Tosno.
Leningrad region scenery
Leningrad province scenery
Leningrad region facts
Most of the population of the region are Russians. A lot of other Slavic nationalities live here - Ukrainians, Byelorusses.
The transportation net of Leningrad region is well developed due to Saint-Petersburg - one of the largest transport junctions in Russia: buses, water transportation, “Pulkovo” airport of Saint-Petersburg.
Leningrad region attractions
In 1990, a number of monuments of history and culture of Leningrad region were included into the list of UNESCO World Heritage:
- The fortifications “Seraya Loshad” (Grey Horse) and “Krasnaya Gorka” (Red Hill)
- Historical part of the city Shlisselburg
- The fortress “Oreshek”
- Palace and Parks in Ropsha, Gostilitza, Taytz, Gatchina
- The statue to Finnish soldiers in Melnikovo
Among the other places of interest are:
- Staraya Ladoga - ancient capital of Northern Russia
- Vyborg - Vyborg castle
- Tihvin - Assumption monastery, house - memorial of Rimsky-Korsakov
- Ivangorod - Ivangorod fortress
- Priozyorsk - fortress “Korela”
- Koporye - a fortress
- Vsevolozhsk - museum estate “Priyutino”
- Island Konevets - a monastery; wooden churches of Svir (“Golden Ring of Leningrad oblast”)
- Tervenichi and Zelenets - monasteries
- Lisino - buildings designed by N.L.Benua
- Izvara - museum estate of Roerich
- Vyra - museum “A House of a Post-Master”)