Sochi (also spelled Sochy) is a resort city located in Krasnodar krai of Russia on the Black Sea coast of the North Caucasus region. Sochi is the largest resort city in Russia. The city is informally referred to as a “summer resort capital” of Russia.
In Sochi (Adler and Krasnaya Polyana, located 39 kilometers from the coast of the Black Sea), in Adler district of the city, Winter Olympic Games 2014 will be held.
September 15, 2009, Sochi joined the World Union of Olympic cities. The official day of Sochi city is May 15.
Sochi has the population of about 360,000 (2012), land area - 3,502 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 862; the postal codes - 354000-354999.
Several matches of FIFA World Cup 2018 will be held in Sochi.
Sochi is located about 43 degrees north latitude (approximately midway between the North Pole and the equator), or approximately latitude of Nice, Toronto, and Vladivostok cities.
The total length of Big Sochi is about 105 km. However, to drive the entire length of the Big Sochi on a mountain road, it is necessary to overcome the significantly greater distance (about 140 km).
Due to the construction of new bridges and road tunnels the distance will be significantly reduced. The city area is located along the coast, sometimes expanding into the mountain valleys until the Main Caucasian ridge for a distance of 40 to 60 km.
The most important resort factors that attract people to Sochi are the beaches, warm climate, mineral springs. Virgin Colchis forests of Western Caucasus located partially on the city area (Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve) are listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Sochi as well as the rest of Russia’s Black Sea coast south of Tuapse is located in the zone of humid subtropical climate, which strongly distinguishes this region from a northern section of the coast from Anapa to Tuapse, dominated by the typical semi-arid Mediterranean climate.
The climate is very humid. The climate of the similar kind is observed in neighboring Abkhazia as well as in south-eastern United States (Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia). Maximum precipitation occurs in winter season, mainly in the form of rain, less often - the snow.
Winters are warm and summers are hot and humid. This type of climate is favorable for the cultivation of various kinds of subtropical and temperate crops. As the city is located on the northern border of the subtropics, in winter frost and snow are possible.
The average annual temperature is +14.2 degrees Celsius; average temperature in January - +5.7 degrees C; average temperature in July - +23.3 degrees C; average wind speed - 2.2 m/s; average humidity - 74%. Summer sea water temperature reaches +28 degrees C. Average annual rainfall - 1,644 mm. The average number of cloudy days - 66.
Sochi city area and the surrounding Black Sea coast have ancient history, as evidenced by archaeological findings in the region. There are the traces of before antique times, antiquity, early and late Middle Ages, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.
It is assumed that the first humans entered the vicinity of Sochi about 400-350 thousand years ago. The most famous monument of the Stone Age period is Akhshtyr cave inhabited by 250 thousand years ago.
Cimmerians is the oldest confirmed by historical documents name of the population lived on the North-West Caucasus. In the first half of the 6th century BC, a large group of Scythian tribes settled on the Black Sea coast of Caucasus.
Greek colonization of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus began at about the 6th-5th centuries BC with the appearance of city-states, and lasted until about the 1st century BC. The period of the 1st-5th centuries AD was the time of Roman colonization of the Black Sea coast.
In the 6th-15th centuries, the region was under control of various Christian kingdoms. As a result of Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829, the Russian Empire received the territory of present Sochi.
Sochi was founded in April 21, 1838 as fort Alexandria. The purpose of the fortifications had been suppressing the slave trade and smuggling of weapons sales to mountaineers. In 1839, the fort Alexandria was renamed to Navaginskaya fortress. During the Crimean War the garrisons located in the area were transported to Novorossiysk because of the English-French squadron appeared in the Black Sea.
In 1864, the fortification was rebuilt as fort Dahovsky. Since 1874, it was known as Dahovsky Posad, from 1896 - Sochi (after the name of the river Sochi, on the banks of which the fort was standing). In June 14, 1909, the first resort “The Caucasian Riviera” was opened. It is the date of beginning Sochi as a resort city.
In April 1920, the Soviet power was established. After the Civil War the considerable attention was devoted to the development of the resort industry in Sochi. From 1937, Sochi is the city of Krasnodar krai.
The economics of Sochi is based on servicing vacationers and tourism (mostly designed for Russia’s domestic market, formerly the USSR). Around the coast of Big Sochi there are numerous hotels, motels, cafes, bars, entertainment centers, water parks, marinas, piers, etc. Food and manufacturing industries are developing quickly.
Public transport is mainly represented by small buses (marshrustkas), taxis and a small number of buses. An alternative way is to hire or rent a car. Because of the length of the city there are also regular runs of electric trains. Thanks to the Winter Olympics 2014 the system of trains will be significantly developed and modernized.
Sochi places of interest
Sochi has a lot of attractions like Sochi Dolphinarium, Sochi Oceanarium, Sochi Circus, Summer Theater, The Art Museum, Ethnographic Museum, Literary Memorial Museum of N.A. Ostrovsky, The Festival of Velvet Seasons, Sochi hall of organ music and others.
Krasnaya Polyana ski resort (one of the place of Winter Olympic Games 2014) was opened in 2007 and would take sports outdoors (ski race, downhill, bobsled, etc.), while in Sochi will be the competitions in indoor (hockey, figure skating, skating, etc.).
A large number of hotels and political support were the main arguments that gave this city an advantage over the other candidates.
Sochi will become the first city with a subtropical climate, where the Winter Olympic Games will be held. The decision to hold Winter Olympic Games 2014 in Sochi was announced July 5, 2007.