Adygea Republic overview
Adygea Republic (alternate spelling: Adygeya) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation, part of the Southern Federal District. The republic is an enclave within Krasnodar Krai.
Maykop is the capital city of the region.
The population of Adygea is about 451,000 (2015), the area - 7,792 sq. km.
Adygea Republic history
The territory of Adygea has been inhabited since ancient times. Abadzehskaya Paleolithic site is located in Maykop district. Also there are a lot of archaeological sites of Bronze and Iron Ages. Maykop archaeological culture is well known.
A lot of unique items were found during the excavation of the hills near the village of Ulyap in Krasnogvardeysky district. Most of the precious items excavated while Adygea was part of Krasnodar krai and known as “Scythian gold” or “Kuban gold” can be found in museums outside of Adygea.
More Historical Facts…
The indigenous Adyg population’s ancestors are considered to be ancient Meots, Sinds, Aheys, Zikhs, Kasogs, and Kerkets residing in the region. As a result of the Caucasian wars (1763-1864), the majority of the Adygs (Circassians) were exiled to the Ottoman Empire. The rest of the Adygs were settled in the lowlands, on the left bank of the Kuban River.
Adygea was formed on July 27, 1922 as Cherkesskaya (Adygeyskaya) Autonomous Oblast (province) with the center in Krasnodar. From August 24, 1922 till August 13, 1928, it was Adygeyskaya (Cherkesskaya) Autonomous Oblast, and then Adygeyskaya Autonomous Oblast.
From August 2, 1924 till December 28, 1934, it was part of the North Caucasian krai, then, till September 13, 1937, part of Azov-Chernomorsky krai and finally - part of Krasnodar krai.
April 10, 1936, Maykop became the capital of the region. April 28, 1962, Tulsky (now Maikopsky) district of Krasnodar krai was joined to the region. October 5, 1990, Adygeyskaya Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was declared. Since 1992, it is the Republic of Adygea.
In December 1991 - January 1992, deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Adygea were elected. It was the first Parliament in the history of Adygea. In 1993, it was reformed into Legislative Assembly (Khase) and, in 1995, - into State Council - Khase. The Constitution of the Republic of Adygea was adopted by Legislative Assembly - Khase on March 10, 1995.
Adygea Republic features
Adygea is located in the northern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains. The northern part of the region consists mainly of plains while the southern part has mountains. The main river of the region is the Kuban River. The highest mountains are Chugush (3,238 meters) and Fisht (2,868 meters).
The climate is moderately warm, the average temperature in January is minus 2 degrees Celsius, in July - plus 28 degrees Celsius.
The republic is rich in forest resources, which occupy more than one third of the republic’s territory (the southern part), and building materials (gravel, sand, clay, limestone). The republic has small reserves of natural gas. In the mountainous part of the republic there are small deposits of gold, ore materials.
Adygea is an industrial-agrarian republic with such industries as food processing, woodworking, pulp and paper, mechanical engineering and metalworking. The basis of the agro-industrial production is crop production, pig, sheep, poultry, and horse breeding. Several railways pass through the territory of the republic.
National composition of the population according to the 2010 census: Russians (63.6%), Adygs (Circassians) (25.8%), Armenians (3.7%). Most of the population of Adygea profess Orthodoxy and Islam. The Slavic population - Orthodox Christians, Circassians - Sunni Muslims.
There are two local universities in the republic: Adygea State University and Maikop State Technological University.
Adygea Republic landscape
Adygea Republic attractions
Adygea is included in the UNESCO World Heritage list. This region is rich in waterfalls, caves, rock formations suitable for climbing, gorges, canyons, rivers, alpine meadows, pine and fir forests.
The territory of the republic is a region of mixed tourism. It is rich in interesting natural areas and objects: the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve located in the Republic of Adygea and Krasnodar krai, the National Park “Gornaya (Mountainous) Adygea”, a number of unique natural sites.
Khadzhokhsky Gorge, a canyon of the Belaya River, begins in the vicinity of Maikop. Near the canyon there are waterfalls of the Rufabgo stream.
In the mountain village of Guzeripl, on the territory of the Caucasus Nature Reserve, you can find one of the most famous dolmens, they can also be found on Bogatyrskaya glade. There are sites of ancient man, remains of fortresses, alpine gardens, and sources of mineral water “narzan”, which in Circassian means “drink of the gods (narts).”
Adygea is a great place to practice active tourism: hang gliding, caving, rafting, mountain climbing, rock climbing, hiking, canyoning.