Pyatigorsk (also spelled Piatigorsk, the name means “five mountains city”) is the oldest balneological and mud resort of Russia and the largest (in number of the resident population) city, as well as industrial, commercial, scientific, cultural and tourist center of eco-resort region Caucasian Mineral Waters (Kavkazskiye Mineralniye Vody). The city is located in Stavropol krai.
Pyatigorsk is located 196 km south-east of Stavropol, 24 km south of Mineral Waters (Mineralniye Vody), at an altitude of about 525 m above sea level. Pyatigorsk is situated close to the Caucasus, on Stavropolskaya hill, mostly on the left bank of the river Podkumok. The mountain Beshtau peak is the highest point in the area around the city (1 401 m). The average temperature in January is 2,6 degrees C below zero, in July - 22,4 degrees C above zero.
Pyatigorsk has the population of about 144,000 (2012).
The phone code is +7 8793; postal code - 357500.
The first record of the area Bish-Dag (five mountains) with hot water spring was made in 1334 by Arab traveler Ibn Batuta. In 1773, the Russian scientist Gyuldenshtedt recorded in his memoirs Goryachaya (Hot) mountain and its split with hot sulphuric water flowing from it.
In 1780, Konstantinogorskaya fortress was begun to be constructed on the territory of current district Novo-Pyatigorsk. This date is an official date of Pyatigorsk foundation. In 1803, the history of Pyatigorsk as a resort city began.
On May 14th, 1830, the settlement of Goryachevodsk widely grown turned into the city under the name Pyatigorsk. This name is linked with 5-peak mountain Beshtau close to Pyatigorsk.
In 1863, the balneological society (the first in Russia) was founded, it researched curing factors presented by nature. In 1889, the statue to M.Yu.Lermontov was opened in Pyatigorsk, it was the first monument to Lermontov in Russia. The money for this statue was collected within 18 years.
In 1894, railway was constructed up to the city. In 1920, Balneological Institute, the first in Russia, was formed in Pyatigorsk. In 1970, Pyatigorsk was included into the list of 115 historical cities in Russia.
On January 19, 2010, Pyatigorsk received the status of the center of North Caucasus Federal District. It is the only center of the federal district not being the capital of the subject of the federation.
Pyatigorsk streets sceneries
Pyatigorsk street scenery
Since its foundation, Pyatigorsk resort was visited by: A.S.Pushkin, M.Yu.Lermontov, M.I.Glinka, L.N.Tolstoy, A.S.Griboyedov, V.G.Belinsky, N.I.Pirogov, A.M.Gorky, F.I.Shalyapin.
Pyatigorsk industry is mainly service-oriented. There are food industry plants. The unique geographical location of the city close to numerous mineral water springs determined development of mineral water bottling plants.
In the city there are 17 institutes, branches and representations of other institutes. It is considered to be the students’ city (about 40,000 students).
Pyatigorsk possesses a lot of natural curing resources. There are over 40 mineral water springs differing in their chemical contents and temperature. Among all the curing factors in Pyatigorsk mineral springs are the most important, the history of their founding, research and usage is inseparably linked with the history of the resort which long ago became the cultural and administrative center of Caucasian Mineral Waters.
Pyatigorsk is sometimes called “Natural museum of mineral waters” for unique variety of mineral springs on a small area around the mountain Mashuk.
The city day is celebrated in the second Saturday of September.
Pyatigorsk city views
Pyatigorsk places of interest:
Lermontov house (Lermontov Str., 4). Great Russian poet Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov spent his 2 last years in this house. At present the State M.Yu.Lermontov museum-reserve is located there.
Park “Tsvetnik” (flower-garden). It was made in 1829-1831s in marshlands which were formed of springs flowing down the mountains.
Pavilion “Aeolus harp”. It was built in 1831 on the highest point of Mikhailovsky spur, Mashuk mountain. An original musical instrument - Aeolus harp, very popular in Europe - was placed in the pavilion. In 2008, the equipment was installed in the pavilion which played music independently of wind. From the pavilion one can see splendid views of Elbrus Mountain, Pyatigorsk city and settlements Goryachevodsky and Svobody.
The sculpture “Oryol” (eagle). The sculpture depicts an eagle fighting a snake - an official symbol of Caucasian Mineral Waters. This sculpture was prepared for 100 anniversary of the resort and was opened on May 1st, 1901. Similar sculptures were erected in all the cities of Caucasian Mineral Waters: Pyatigorsk, Kislovodsk, Yessentuki and Zheleznovodsk.
Lermontov gallery. In the early 20th century, it was decided to build a fashionable construction of metal and glass - fashionable at that time. The gallery was finished and was opened in May, 1902. It received the name of the Great Russian poet M.Yu. Lermontov. The building remains unchangeable. A lot of famous personalities performed in the gallery Shalyapin, Yermolova, Mayakovsky and others.
Pyatigorsky necropolis. It was founded in 1824 and now it’s a state architectural monument. It is one of the oldest cemeteries in the Northern Caucasus. Pyatigorsk cemetery “Necropolis” is located at the Mashuk Mountain foot. There are a lot of historical monuments on the territory of “Necropolis”. These are graves of soldiers, outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, artists and doctors.
Pyatigorsk is the place where events of the novel “A Hero of Our Time” (M.Yu. Lermontov) took place. A part of events of the novel “12 chairs” (Ilf, Petrov) also took place in Pyatigorsk.