Ingushetia Republic overview
Ingushetia Republic (also spelled Ingushetiya) is located in the northern part of Big Caucasus range, part of North Caucasian Federal District.
Administrative center and capital city of the republic is Magas. Ingushetia Republic length from north to south - 144 km, from west to east - 72 km.
Ingushetia Republic population is about 442,000 (2012) on the territory of 3,513 sq. km.
Ingushetia Republic facts
Ingushetia Republic is one of Russia’s poorest regions. The military conflict in a neighboring Chechnya has occasionally spilled into Ingushetia. The region has been destabilized by a number of high-profile crimes, anti-government protests, attacks on soldiers and officers, military excesses and deteriorating human rights situation.
Natives of Ingushetia republic are Ingushs (about 415 thousand people). Ingush refer to themselves as Galgai, the name of one of the main tribes. Ingush are also known by the following names: Amazons, Dzoordzook, Fyappi, Galash, Gegar, Gelgai, Gergar, Ghalghai, Glivi, Jairakh, Khamhoi, Kist, Koost, Metshal, Narts, Nyasareth, Ongusht and Tsori.
Ingushetia Republic history
In 1810, Ingushetia came under the Russian rule. In 1921, Autonomous Soviet Mountain Republic, of which the Ingush formed a part together with Kabardians, Chechens, Circassians, Ossetians, Balkars and the Karachai, was created. In 1924, Ingushetia became an autonomous district of the Russian Federation. The political and intellectual leadership of Ingushetia were deported.
In 1936, Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Region was raised to the status of an Autonomous Republic. In the Second World War, when Nazi Germans neared the Caucasian oilfields, Ingush and Chechens were found on both sides in the war. Because of this “lack of loyalty” to Soviet power, the entire Chechen and Ingush nations were deported to Siberia and Central Asia and removed from official statistics.
In 1991, Chechens declared independence from the Soviet Union as Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. The Ingush’s choice was to secede from the Chechen-Ingush Republic. In 1992, they joined the newly-created Russian Federation to peacefully resolve the conflict with Ossetia. However, the ethnic tensions in North Ossetia led to the outbreak of the Ossetian-Ingush conflict in late October.
More Historical Facts…
Another ethnic cleansing of Ingush population started and over 60,000 Ingush civilians were forced from their homes in Prigorodny District of North Ossetia. As the result of the conflict Ruslan Aushev was appointed the first president of Ingushetia and partial stability returned under his rule in the region.
In 1994-1996, Ingush volunteers were fighting alongside Chechens in the Russian-Chechen war. Besides few incidents Ingushetia republic was largely kept out of the war by determined policy of non-violence pursued by President Ruslan Aushev.
This changed after the beginning of the Second Chechen War, and especially since the rule of President Murat Zyazikov in 2002. In June 2004, Nazran city raid happened. Chechen and Ingush guerillas attacked government targets across Ingushetia republic.
As a result 90 people were killed. In response Moscow sent in additional 2,500 interior ministry troops, more than tripling the number of special forces in Ingushetia republic in July.
Ingushetia Republic economics, resources
Ingushetia Republic has been designated a free economic zone. It has mineral water and is considering developing a modest tourist industry. There are oil and natural gas fields, supplies of limestone, clay, mineral waters. National wealth of Ingushetia is valuable forests. Overall square of forest fund is 84.4 thousand hectares.
The region is divided into 4 districts, 45 settlements and 4 towns. The density of population in Ingushetia is about 126 persons per sq. km.