Dagestan Republic overview
Dagestan Republic (other spellings Daghestan, Daghistan) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation, part of North Caucasian Federal District, located in the North Caucasus region. The capital city and administrative center of the republic is Makhachkala.
The name of the republic is meaning “The country of mountains”. About 30 peaks in Dagestan are above 4,000 m, the highest peak Bazardyuzyu is 4,466 m. Dagestan Republic of the Russian Empire was formed after the Great Caucasus War in 1860.
Dagestan Republic population - 2,946,000 (2012); land area - 50,270 sq. km.
Dagestan Republic history
In the 6th-11th centuries, most part of mountainous Dagestan was united under the power of kingdom Sarir with the capital Khunzakh. In the 7th-10th centuries, northern (plain) part of Dagestan was occupied by Khazars. In the 7th century, Derbent became the strongest town of caliphate, Islam started to spread in the Eastern Caucasus.
In the early 12th century, the Moslem kingdom began forming - Shamhal with the capital Kazi-Kumukh. In the early 14th century, it was mentioned in manuscripts as Dagestan. In 1239, Mongol-Tatars invaded Dagestan.
Till the end of the 14th century, mountaineers fought with Tamerlan. Dagestan people were killed by his troops in great numbers. A number of Dagestan feudal lords supported Tamerlan’s enemy - Tokhtamysh and almost all the people residing in southern Dagestan were killed.
In the 15th century, Islam finally spread all over Dagestan. The people of Dagestan began to spread Islam in Northern Caucasus. In 1668-1669, the “Persian expedition” of Don Cossacks headed by Stepan Razin took place - they went through the territories of Turkmenia, Persia, Azerbaijan and defeated Persian fleet and army, Derbent town was destroyed during this campaign.
In the 17th century, the war between Russia and Persia was the reason of feudal breaking up and disturbances and as a result Dagestan Shamkhal split into independent principalities. The whole 18th century passed in fights of Dagestan people with Russia and Persia.
In 1722-1735, there was the Second Russian-Dagestan War. Peter I organized a campaign to Dagestan. Russian troops occupied the coastal part of the Caspian Sea. After the death of Peter I, Persia refused the treaty conditions and again tried to occupy coasts of the Caspian Sea.
In 1813, the war between Persia and Russia ended in Gyulistan treaty according to which Persia refused of Eastern and Central Caucasus. In the 20s of the 19th century, Russian troops defeated Dagestan feudal lords.
In 1829-1859, the Third Russian-Dadestan War took place and it turned into Great Caucasian War. In 1860, Dagestan oblast of the Russian Empire was formed.
In 1877, there was an all-shariat revolt in Dagestan to protest against Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. For a while, most of khanates were restored. In spite of the first success the revolt was suppressed, the initiators were executed, thousands of participants and suspected were exiled with their families to different regions of Russia.
In 1921, Dagestan ASSR was formed. On September 17, 1991, it was renamed into Dagestan SSR, on December 17, 1991 - into the Republic of Dagestan. In 1994, the Constitution of the Republic of Dagestan was adopted.
In 1999, Vakhkhabit revolt in Western and Central Dagestan took place, it was suppressed. Chechen separatists invaded in Dagestan and were defeated. From 2002, for the time being the participants of religious and extreme underground of Dagestan committed dozens of terrorist acts.
Dagestan Republic scenery
Dagestan Republic resources, economics
The largest cities and towns of Dagestan Republic are Makhachkala (574,000), Khasavurt (134,000), Derbent (120,000), Kaspyisk (103,000), Buynaksk (65,000), Izberbash (56,000), Kizlyar (49,000).
Main natural resources of the region include natural gas, oil and coal. Oil deposits are located in the coastal areas of Dagestan Republic. The region economy main industries are chemical, food, engineering, machine building, metalworking, oil production, textile and timber.
Agriculture is well developed in the republic (grain, wine, sheep). Being a mountainous region it has a lot of opportunities to develop its hydroelectric power industry.
The transportation system of Dagestan includes railways connecting Makhachkala with Moscow, Astrakhan and Baku (capital city of Azerbaijan). There is also Moscow-Baku highway going through the Republic of Dagestan.