Stavropol (Stavropol-Kavkazsky in 1777-1935, Voroshilovsk in 1935-1943) is a city located in the south of Russia, 1,404 km south of Moscow, the capital of Stavropolsky krai. It is a cultural, business and industrial center of the region, one of the largest cities in the North Caucasus.
Stavropol population is about 426,000 (2015), the land area - 172 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 8652; the postal codes - 355000-355047.
The territory of Stavropol and the surrounding area were inhabited since ancient times, Nogai and Kalmyks roamed here. The modern history of Stavropol dates back to 1777, when a military outpost was built on the site of present city. It was part of a system of the Azov-Mozdok defensive line built for the protection and development of the southern borders of the Russian Empire.
Soon the village turned into a town, which almost immediately became the main Russian gates to the Caucasus. The formation of the town contributed to the successful development of the vast uninhabited territory on Russia’s southern borders, economic and cultural development of indigenous peoples.
The town was crossed by Big Cherkassky tract, connecting St. Petersburg and Moscow with the Caucasus, Big Salskaya road - the access to the Volga River, the roads to Rostov and Ekaterinodar.
More Historical Facts…
Since the middle of the 19th century, Stavropol played an increasingly prominent role in the cultural life of the Caucasus. In 1816, the first printing house in the North Caucasus was opened here. After the defeat of the uprising of Decembrists, a lot of them were exiled to this town. Stavropol was visited by A.S.Pushkin, L.N.Tolstoy, A.S.Griboyedov, V.G.Belinsky, and A.I.Odoyevsky.
In 1837-1841, Lermontov, who was exiled to the Caucasus, visited Stavropol several times. In 1843-1847, the famous Russian medical doctor N.I.Pirogov worked in the military hospital in Stavropol, the first one in the Caucasus. In 1845, the first in the Caucasus Russian theater was opened. In 1852, the town received the first public library. In the early 20th century, there were 27 Orthodox parishes, a synagogue, a Lutheran church, and a mosque in Stavropol.
In the 1920s-1930s, most of the churches were closed. In 1926, the Stavropol radio - one of the first in Soviet Russia - started its broadcasts. In 1935, the city was renamed Voroshilovsk in honor of the Soviet commander Voroshilov. During the Second World War, the city was captured by the Germans on August 3, 1942, it was liberated by the Soviet army on January 21, 1943. The historical name was returned to the city in 1943.
In September 2000, in order to commemorate the foundation of the city and the third millennium, a stone cross “The Symbol of Stavropol” was erected on Krepostnaya Hill. In 2002, Stavropol celebrated its 225th anniversary. In honor of this event a statue “Guardian Angel” and a new square were opened in the city.
In 2012, in honor of the 235th anniversary of Stavropol, a light and music fountain was opened on Komsomolskaya Hill. In January 2014, Stavropol hosted the Olympic torch relay “Sochi - 2014”.
Old building in Stavropol
On the street in Stavropol
The name of the city is made up of two Greek words meaning “cross” and “city”. The original fort was built on two axes which crossed each other reminding a cross. Also, one of the legends says that people found a large cross made of stone during the construction of the fortress. This was reflected in the name of the city, its flag and coat of arms.
Till 1935, the town was called Stavropol-Kavkazsky unlike the town of Stavropol located on the Volga River. When the town on the Volga was renamed, the ending “Kavkazsky” came out of use. The city is also known as “the gateway to the Caucasus”.
One of the streets of Stavropol is named “The 45th Parallel”, indicating its exact latitudinal position. Thus, Stavropol is equidistant from the North Pole and the equator. Another feature of the city is that forests adjoin close to urban areas. The total area of greenery is more than 4400 hectares. Stavropol is divided into three districts: Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, Promyshlennyy (Industrial).
Stavropol is known for frequent strong winds with a velocity of 20-25 m/s. February and March are the most windy months. The average temperature in January is minus 2.3 degrees Celsius, in July - plus 22.3 degrees Celsius.
Today, over 400 plants make up an economic base of Stavropol. They produce medicines, mono crystals, electric measuring tools, metal constructions, foodstuffs. Mechanical engineering is the main industry of the city - production of electronic equipment, auto parts, ship systems, anticorrosion systems, measuring tools, etc.
Public transport system is presented by buses, minivans and trolley-buses. Stavropol international airport (Shpakovskoye) offers regular flights to Moscow and Istanbul (Turkey).
Residential quarter in Stavropol
Guardian Angel of Stavropol
Stavropol hotels and attractions
Today, Stavropol has more than 15 hotels, the most popular hotels are:
- The hotel complex “EuroHotel Stavropol” (Marshal Zhukov Street, 1),
- Congress Hotel “Continent” (Dzerzhinsky Street, 114),
- Restaurant and hotel complex “Onegin” (Mikhailovskoye highway, 28),
- Hotel complex “PARK HOTEL STAVROPOL” (Dovatortsev Street, 47b),
- Hotel “Stella” (Dovatortsev Street, 40a),
- Hotel “Intourist Stavropol” (Karla Marksa Avenue, 42).
About 200 monuments of history, culture, architecture, and urban planning can be found in Stavropol, 12 of them are monuments of federal importance. The city has two parks (Central and Victory), several movie theaters, bowling clubs.
Stavropol railway station
Memorial Eternal Flame in Stavropol
- Stavropol Historical-Cultural and Natural Museum (Dzerzhinsky Street, 135),
- Stavropol Regional Museum of Fine Arts (Dzerzhinsky Street, 115),
- Picture gallery of landscapes of P.M.Grechishkin (Mikhail Morozov Street, 12),
- Parshin Art Gallery (General Ermolov Boulevard, 1),
- Stavropol Cossacks History Museum (Vokzalnaya Street, 24),
- Museum of City History (Dzerzhinsky Street, 105),
- Museum of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 “Memory” (Shaumyana Street, 45),
- Einstein Museum of Entertaining Science (Dovatortsev Street, 25),
- Museum-Estate of V.I.Smirnov (Dzerzhinsky Street, 105),
- Museum Library named after I.A.Burmistrov (Burmistrova Street, 67).
Stavropol theaters and other cultural institutions
- Stavropol Academic Drama Theater named after Lermontov (Lenina Square, 1),
- Stavropol Krai Puppet Theater (Lenina Street, 251),
- Stavropol Regional Philharmonic Society (Karla Marksa Avenue, 61),
- Stavropol State Circus (Yermolova Square, 2),
- Center for Contemporary Art “Mesto” (Lermontova Street, 182a),
- Stavropol Regional Exotarium (Komsomolskaya Street, 113),
- Stavropol Zoo (Shpakovskaya Street, 111).