Pskov is a city located in the north-western part of European Russia, at the confluence of the Velikaya and the Pskova rivers, the capital of the Pskov region. It is one of the most ancient Russian cities.
The population of Pskov is about 207,500 (2015), the area - 96 sq. km.
The phone code - +7 8112, the postal codes - 180000-180560.
Pskov, one of the oldest Russian cities, was first mentioned in the Laurentian Chronicle in 903. The original name of Pskov was “Pleskov” meaning “the town of purling water”. Until the 12th century, Pskov was part of the Old Russian state. In 1136, after the proclamation of the Novgorod Republic, the town came under the rule of Novgorod. In 1240, Pskov was captured by the Teutonic Order. The town was liberated by the army of Alexander Nevsky in 1242.
In the 12th-13th centuries, the main trade partners of Pskov were Narva, Yuryev (present Tartu), Riga, Polotsk, Smolensk, and to a lesser extent Novgorod. Since Pskov land provided the town with bread and other products, it was not economically dependent on Novgorod. Pskov and Novgorod had only common military interests.
However, after the Battle on the Ice, the Teutonic Order, their common enemy, ceased to be a threat to Novgorod. Novgorod continued to fight only against the Swedes, and Pskov had to fight against the Livonian Order alone. Thus, the military ties between Pskov and Novgorod ended. In fact, Pskov became independent at the end of the 13th century.
More Historical Facts…
In 1348, the Bolotovskiy agreement was signed - the Novgorod Republic recognized the independence of the Pskov Republic. In 1397, the Pskov Veche (popular assembly, the supreme legislative body of the Pskov Republic) passed the first edition of the Pskov Judicial Charter - a set of laws.
By the end of the 15th century, the population of Pskov was more than 30 thousand people. Pskov merchants traded with the towns of the Baltic States and Lithuania, as well as with Russian towns. Pskov strengthened trade ties with Moscow. The development of trade led to the creation of its own monetary system.
Since 1461, the power in Pskov concentrated in the hands of Moscow governors. By the end of the 15th - the beginning of the 16th centuries, Pskov almost completely lost its independence. In January, 1510, the Pskov Veche was convened last time. The Pskov Republic ceased to exist, it became part of the Russian state. Pskov continued to be a major trade and crafts center.
In 1581-1582, during the Livonian War, the most known siege of Pskov happened, when the Polish army of about 50,000 soldiers made several attempts to capture the town but without success. In 1615, the Swedes under the leadership of Gustavus Adolphus besieged Pskov, but the town was not taken.
In the beginning of the 18th century, during the Northern War, Pskov again played an important role in the military history of Russia. In winter 1700-1701, Russian troops broken at Narva were withdrawn in Pskov.
After the Northern War, Pskov ceased to be an important defensive and trading center. Russian border moved far to the west. Peter I, having access to the Baltic Sea, founded St. Petersburg in the delta of the Neva River. Russia also received Riga and Revel, large coastal towns and major trading centers. Pskov became a provincial town.
During the 19th century, the role of Pskov as a city-monument was growing. In 1904, the first power station was built. The tram service was opened in 1912. March 2, 1917, the Emperor Nicholas II signed his abdication in the royal train at the Pskov station.
During the Second World War, Pskov was captured by the German army in 1941. During the occupation, which lasted from 1941 until 1944, the city was severely damaged, a lot of ancient buildings were destroyed. By 1950, the main stage of the restoration was completed. Since the late 1950s, Pskov began to develop as a major industrial center.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, a lot of plants were closed, the city’s economy declined. At the same time, at the turn of the 20th and the 21st centuries, a number of Pskov churches, closed in the years of Soviet power, were revived. Today, Pskov is an important tourist center of the Pskov region and the north-western Russia.
Church of the Assumption of Our Lady in Pskov
Beautiful ancient church in Pskov
Church of St. Alexander Nevsky in Pskov
Pskov is a city where a lot of Russian architectural features were presented for the first time.
The climate in Pskov is transitional from temperate maritime to temperate continental, with mild winters and warm summers. The average temperature in February (the coldest month) is minus 7.3 degrees Celsius, in July (the warmest month) - plus 19.1 degrees Celsius.
Pskov airport (Herman Street, 34) offers flights to Moscow and St. Petersburg. Pskov bus station (Vokzalnaya Street, 21) offers regular buses to Moscow, St. Petersburg, Velikie Luki, Veliky Novgorod.
There are more than 20 hotels in Pskov, the largest hotels are “Rizhskaya”, “Oktyabrskaya”, “Old Estate Hotel & SPA”, “Dvor Podznoeva”.
Pskov places of interest
Ancient churches are the most remarkable part of the architectural heritage of Pskov. The city has unique churches of the 12th-15th centuries - most of buildings of this time in other Russian cities were destroyed by the Mongols and during internecine wars.
The main attraction of Pskov is called “Krom” - a medieval fortress built in the 13th century. Inside you can find the Trinity Cathedral (1138).
The oldest functioning Russian monastery (Pskov Monastery of the Caves) is the place attracting pilgrims from all over Russia. Also, there are Krypetsky Monastery (the 16th century) and Elizarovo Monastery giving a lot of information on medieval Russia.
Mikhailovskoe, the family nest of the famous Russian poet Alexander Pushkin, is among the other attractions of Pskov.
Museums and Theaters…
- The Art Museum-Reserve in Pogankiny Chamber - a monument of medieval Russian architecture, a rich collection of unique Pskov icons and artistic silver (Nekrasova Street, 7);
- Prikazniye Chambers, souvenirs (Kreml Street, 4);
- Menshikovy Chambers, souvenirs (Sovetskaya Street, 50);
- The House-Museum of V.I. Lenin (Iskry Lane, 5);
- The Railway Museum (Vokzalnaya Street, 38);
- The Museum of Kaverin “Two Captains” (Oktyabrsky Avenue, 7a);
- Pskov Planetarium (Sovetskaya Street, 64a);
- The House of Crafts, souvenirs (Nekrasova Street, 8);
- The Folk Art Center (Nekrasova Street, 10);
- The exhibition of archaeological finds in the archaeological center of the Pskov region (Gertsena Street, 1).
- Pskov Academic Drama Theater named after A.S. Pushkin (Pushkina Street, 13);
- Pskov Regional Puppet Theater (Konnaya Street, 3);
- Pskov Regional Philharmonic (Nekrasova Street, 24).