Arkhangelsk (also spelled Arhangelsk) is an administrative center and capital city of Arkhangelsk oblast of Russia. It is located in the mouth of the Severnaya (North) Dvina River, about 40 km from the White Sea.
There are two airports in the city (Talagi Airport and Vaskovo Airport). Arkhangelsk is an important seaport, one of the Russian timber and fishing centers.
The population of Arkhangelsk is about 351,000 (2015); the land area - 294.4 sq. km.
The phone code - +7 8182; the postal codes - 163000-163072.
Archangel Michael Monastery was built in the North Dvina River estuary by Novgorod state people in the 12th century. That time, the most important trade center of the region was Kholmogory settlement located in the place where the Dvina and the Pinega rivers met. The region was conquered by Tsar Ivan III of the Moscow state in 1478.
The Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible ordered the establishment of a new settlement called Novokholmogory (New Kholmogory) in 1584.
Later, the settlement was renamed after Archangel Michael Monastery located nearby. At that time, it was the only Russian seaport used for trading with Europe.
The state shipyard was built in Arkhangelsk by the order of Peter the Great in 1693. The main problem was that the port was under ice cover for about five months every year.
It was one of the reasons why Peter the Great organized a military campaign against Sweden army in the Baltic Sea area to obtain additional access to the sea. The campaign was successful, Saint Petersburg town was founded in 1704.
In 1918-1920, Arkhangelsk was one of the centers of White Army (anti-Bolshevik forces) during the Russian Civil War.
Arkhangelsk played an important role during both World Wars. It was the destination port of various Allied aid for the Russian Empire (the First World War) and the USSR (the Second World War). Arkhangelsk and Murmansk were the destinations of Arctic Convoys during the Second World War.
The coat of arms of Arkhangelsk was approved in 1780. In the golden field of the shield, you can see the flying Archangel, armed with a flaming sword and shield, striking the defeated devil.
White nights occur from May 17 to July 26. During this period, in clear weather, natural light allows to carry out all types of work, read newspapers, etc. around the clock.
Arkhangelsk is served by two airports: Arkhangelsk Airport (Talagi) and Vaskovo (local flights). Arkhangelsk Airport (Talagi), located 11 km from the city, has flights to/from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Murmansk, Naryan-Mar.
The city is the cultural and historical capital of northern regions, a birthplace of northern culture, traditions and history.
Arkhangelsk sea-river station is depicted on the Russian banknote of 500 Rubles.
The climate is temperate, maritime with long moderately cold winters and short, cool summers.
It is formed under the influence of the northern seas and the transfer of air masses from the Atlantic Ocean in a small amount of solar radiation. The average temperature in January is -12,8 degrees Celsius, in July - +16,3 degrees C.
Frequent changes in the weather, high humidity and a large number of days with precipitation are the features of local climate. The maximum temperature (+34,4) was recorded July 13, 1972. The minimum temperature (-45,2) - January 8, 1885.
Lenin monument in Arkhangelsk
The symbol of Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk is a large scientific and industrial center of the north-western part of Russia. Such industries as wood working, timber-chemical, pulp and paper, fish processing, microbiological and machine-building are concentrated in the city.
Timber, paper, carton as well as fish are still the basic trade of Arkhangelsk with other Russian regions and foreign countries. This city is one of the largest transportation hubs in the north-east of Russia. Several railways and highways meet here.
Arkhangelsk is an important center of automobile freight. It is the end of the highway M8, the only road connecting the city with the central part of the country.
The city has a number of interesting museums.
Arkhangelsk Museum of Local Lore has rich natural science and archaeological collections; old plans, maps, photographs and drawings of the city. You can see the exhibitions about the history of development of the North and Arctic research, folk carving, Kholmogory carved bone, handwritten books.
The museum is located in two buildings: the historical and architectural complex “Arkhangelsk Gostiny Dvor” - the Northern Dvina Embankment 85/86; the museum building on Lenin Square, 2.
Arkhangelsk Museum of Fine Arts has collections of the Russian northern icons of the 16th-18th centuries, old Russian sculptures, folk art - embroidery, northern wood, fur, clay toys, Russian paintings, drawings, sculptures). Lenin Square, 2.
Arkhangelsk Literature Museum. Volodarsky Street, 10.
State North Marine Museum. The Northern Dvina Embankment, 80.
The private museum of stone “Samotsvety.” Lomonosov Avenue, 291.
The Museum of Wooden Architecture “Malye Korely” is located in Malye Korely village in Primorsky District, to the south-east of Arkhangelsk.