Taganrog (also spelled Taganrok) is the second largest city of Rostov region located on the northern shore of the Taganrog Bay, the Azov Sea.
The city is situated about 50 km away from the mouth of the river Don, 50 km from the border with Ukraine, 950 km from Moscow, 60 km from Rostov-on-Don (the capital city of the region).
Taganrog has the population of about 256,600 (2012).
The phone code is +7 8634; the postal codes - 347900-347960.
Archaeological research states that in the 7th-6th centuries B.C. there was a Greek settlement on the territory of present day Taganrog. At present, the settlement is completely destroyed by the sea. It was founded in the second half of the 7th century B.C. and destroyed in the second half of the 6th century B.C., probably by nomad Scyths.
Beside Taganrog settlement only one Greek colony existed on the northern shore of the Black Sea in the 7th century B.C. It was on the island of Berezan. In the 13th century, when Italians rapidly colonized the Black Sea basin, the city-port Pizano was constructed there.
Taganrog was first time mentioned in known written sources on September 12, 1698. It was founded as a fortress and harbor for Russian Navy by Peter’s I order. Taganrog became the first navy base in Russia, the first Russian sea-port on the open seashore and the first Russian town built according to regular plan.
Later that place was called Troyetsk, then Troitsk and finally, Taganrog. Peter I even intended to transfer the capital of Russia to Taganrog. But the war lost to Turkey determined the fate of the town.
Initially the town experienced bad times. According to Prut peace treaty, Russia was to destroy the harbor and the town. It was fulfilled in February 1712. It was in 1769 that restoration of Taganrog town began during Russian-Turkish war by Catherine’s the Great order.
After Sevastopol was founded in 1783, Taganrog lost its military importance and turned into the largest trade port in Russia.
Close agricultural districts favored the development of Taganrog. The town was an important center of wheat and flax trading. In 1869, it was linked by the railway with Kharkov and Rostov-on-Don.
In the 19th century, Taganrog was a trade center, interesting residences of Italian and Greek merchants are retained since that time. At the end of the 19th century, industry began to develop quickly; metallurgical, boiler and machine-building plants were constructed. In 1908, first power station was built in Taganrog.
During Russian Civil War, from 1918 till 1920, General Headquarters of Denikin (Armed Forces of Russian South Commander-in-Chief) was located in Taganrog. Since 1937, the city is a part of Rostov region.
Present day Taganrog is a large industrial, scientific, cultural and historical center, one of the leading seaports in the south of Russia. The largest enterprise of the city is Taganrog metallurgical plant: steel production, steel pipes for oil and gas industries.
Machine-building industry is developed in the city: boiler equipment for power stations, forge and press equipment, combine harvesters. There are also several plants of military importance.
“Taganrog automobile plant” (TagAZ) operates on the basis of “Taganrog combine harvester plant”. It produces automobiles Hyudai. There are also chemical, light and food industry plants.
The railway crosses the city and links Taganrog with Rostov-on-Don and the cities of Donetsk region of Ukraine. Highway Rostov-on-Don - Mariupol also crosses the city.
Among the main places of interest of Taganrog are:
- Literary, historical and archaeological museum-reserve named after A.P.Chekhov;
- Art museum;
- Museum of local study;
- Museum of city construction;
- Drama theater;
- The oldest in the South of Russia recreation park.
Taganrog gave Russia and the world a lot of outstanding persons. First of all, this is A.P.Chekhov, his 150th anniversary was celebrated in 2010.
A lot of names are linked with Taganrog: actress F.G.Ranevskaya, artists K.A.Savitsky and A.K.Kuindzhi, writers K.G.Paustovsky and I.D.Vasilenko, trainer A.A.Durov, singer Ye.V.Obraztsova, poet M.I.Tanich.