Rostov-on-Don (Russian spelling Rostov-na-Donu) is the capital and administrative center of Rostov oblast of Russia. The city is also the capital of South Federal District of the Russian Federation from 2000.
It is standing on the banks of the Don River about 46 km from the Azov Sea. Rostov-on-Don is a major railway and highway junction of Southern Russia. There is also an international airport in the city.
Rostov-on-Don population is about 1,100,000 (2012), land area - 354 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 863; postal codes - 344000-344999.
Several matches of FIFA World Cup 2018 will be held in Rostov-on-Don.
Rostov-on-Don has a specific unique outlook due to its rich historical and cultural heritage. Its whole history starting from a small settlement near Temernitskaya customs and St. Dimitry Rostovsky fortress until now is reflected in numerous architectural, archaeological and monumental art; as well as in memorial ensembles of military glory.
The city is a big transportation juncture. There is an international airport in the city with flights within Russia and CIS countries, as well as to the countries of Europe, Africa and Asia. There is also an international river-port in Rostov-on-Don.
Rostov-on-Don is crossed by the railway “St.-Petersburg - Rostov - Caucasus”; navigable waterway from the center of Russia to the Black and Mediterranean Seas, and an air corridor “St.-Petersburg - Moscow - Caucasian region”.
By 2018, it is planned to construct the Yuzhny (southern) airport - the largest international airport in the South of Russia. The airport will be constructed on the territory of former the Bataysk military airport. Rostov-on-Don is crossed by several highways of federal and regional importance.
Rostov-on-Don street view
The Don River mouth area played an important trade and cultural role from ancient times. Such settlements as Tanais (Greek colony), Tana (Genoese state fort), Azak (Turkish fortress) were situated in the region.
In 1749, Rostov-on-Don town was founded with the main purpose to be a customs house. The settlement received its name after Saint Dimitry of Rostov, from an ancient Russian northern town, Rostov the Great.
The town grew quickly and soon it became the major trading center of the region. The Don River connected the northern and southern regions of the Russian Empire. Rostov-on-Don city became a major river port.
It was one of the centers of the Bolsheviks resistance after the Revolution of 1917. It was captured several times by the White armies and Red armies during the Russian Civil war.
Rostov-on-Don became the capital of the region in 1928. The previous capital of the region was Novocherkassk (Cossack capital). The city was heavily damaged during the World War II. German armies captured Rostov-on-Don twice (in 1941 and 1942). Present time city is one of the centers of the new Russian economic growth.
Rostov-na-Donu city scenery
There are over 800 objects of cultural heritage in Rostov-on-Don. Among them are 470 architectural monuments, 55 archaeological monuments and 106 monumental objects of arts and military glory.
The historical center of the city is especially rich in architectural buildings and monuments. The building constructed after architect A.N.Pomerantsev’s design - “City Duma” is unique. The building of M.Gorky drama theater refers to the masterpieces of world architecture. Its model is kept in the British Museum in London.
There are the following museums in Rostov-on-Don:
- Museum of local study;
- Rostov regional museum of fine arts;
- Museum of modern fine arts on Dmitrovskaya;
- Museum of Russian-Armenian friendship;
- Rostov museum of railway equipment;
- Center of modern art “Tobacco fabrika (factory)”.
One can see a lot of city sculptures on the streets of the city. These are as follows: a walking “Citizen”, a “Merchant” offering his goods, a pretty “Flower-girl” with the basket of first violets and a lot of small sculptures which attract city guests’ attention and bring great joy to people.
The monument to the city’s patron - St.Dimitry - was opened in Sobornaya square as well as to the Rostovsky metropolitan. And the belfry in Rostovsky Cathedral church was completely restored.
In 2007, the Pokrovsky church was constructed in its historical place in Kirovsky park and the statue to emperor Yelizaveta Petrovna, founder of Rostov, was erected.
Rostov-on-Don is a large educational and scientific center of Russia. It is the third largest university after Moscow and Saint-Petersburg. There are 4 theaters in Rostov-on-Don, the Don State public library (the largest in the south of Russia), S.V.Rakhmaninov conservatoire, and various interesting exhibition halls.
The Rostov-on-Don zoo opened about 80 years ago and is one of the largest in Europe. The Botanical garden of Rostov State University is considered to be one of the largest in Russia, and it occupies about 161 hectares.
The city is also one of the largest jazz centers in Russia. It has turned into a tradition to conduct art festivals in Rostov-on-Don: “Donskaya vesna (spring)”, “Mini-fest”, “Russian comedy” and international jazz festivals.