Cherkessk (also spelled Cherkesk) is a city in Russia, the capital of Karachay-Cherkessia Republic. It is located close to the Caucasus, on the right bank of the river Kuban. The population of the city mostly consists of Russians, Karachayevs, Cherkesses, Abazins, Nogaytses. People of about 80 nationalities are living in Cherkessk.
Cherkessk population is about 120,000 (2012).
The phone code is +7 8782, postal codes are 369000-3690xx.
Cherkessk was founded by the Cossacks as a Russian military fortification on Kuban frontier, where the Russian troops headed by the general German defeated 40,000 Turkish Army of Batal-Pashi in 1790.
In autumn 1825, near the fortification a settlement was founded by the Cossacks from Stavropol region and it was called Batalpashinskaya - the most rare fact in the history when the settlement was named after defeated but not the winner.
In 1880, Batalpashinskaya became the administrative center of the region. The trade in grains and cattle was held here, there was a wood cutting plant in Batalpashinskaya.
Since 1922, the town was a center of Karachay-Cherkessia autonomous region, since 1926 - a center of Cherkessk national district, from 1928 till 1943 - of Cherkessk autonomous region. In 1931, Batalpashinskays received the city status and was renamed Batalpashinsk.
In 1934, Batalpashinsk was renamed to Sulimov, after the chairman of Sovnarkom. In 1937, Sulimov was arrested and shot, after that the city was renamed Yezhovo-Cherkessk, after the chairman of Inner Affairs N.I.Yezhov. In 1939, after the latter was arrested, only the second part of the city’s name remained.
Since 1957, Cherkessk is a center of Karachay-Cherkessia autonomous region, since 1991 - a center of Karachay-Cherkessia Republic.
Cherkessk facts and features
There is a refrigerator machine-building plant, a rubber plant, a low-voltage equipment plant, a cement plant in Cherkessk.
The city is a railway station on the dead line “Nevinnomysskaya - Dzheguta”. Here starts the Military-Sukhum highway, built in 1828-1878. Cherkessk transportation consists of trolley-buses, buses and mini vans.
There is a Scientific Research Institute of economics, history, language and literature, a State Technological Academy, a Drama Theater, Museums of History and Nature.
About 18 km from Cherkessk there are Batalpashin lakes (this water reservoir is called the Cherkessk Sea), which are the source of water for resort cities of Caucasus mineral waters. It receives water from Big Stavropol Canal in summertime, when snow melts and supplies the cities with the help of water pump.
To the south of Cherkessk, near the town of Ust-Dzheguta, there are hills of bronze period (3000-2000 A.D.), where bronze decorations were found as well as ceramics. Near the settlement Krasnogorskaya there are ruins of the Russian fortifications (a round stone tower) built during the Caucasian war of 1832.