Zlatoust is the third largest city of Chelyabinsk region and the most alpine city of the Urals.
Zlatoust has the population of about 176,000 (2012), land area - 136 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 3513; postal codes - 456200-456292.
Zlatoust received its name after iron-making plant founded in 1754 by manufacturers from Tula - I.P. and V.M. Mosolovs. The first contract signed in 1751 said that “the plant should be named as Zlatoustovsky”.
Evidently the name was linked with the name of Byzantine religious preacher John Zlatoust (about 350-407), but the motives for choosing that name are not clear. According to one point of view this is due to the date when the contract of 1751 was signed - on the eve John Zlatoust’s day (November 13), according to another - because the image of John Zlatoust was the family icon of the Mosolovs.
In 1815, arm-making factory was built there (cold steel was produced, gunsmiths from the German city Zolingen were the first masters), in 1857 - steel mill factory (the first Russian steel cannons were made).
From the early 19th century, Zlatoust was the center of decorative engraving on metal (originally it was an applied way of decorating weapon as gifts: sabers, dirks and swords; at present besides decorating weapon as gifts with gold and silver they make decorative panels on steel plates). Ivan Bushuyev and Ivan Boyarshinov were the founders of decorative metal-working.
On a lot of Ivan Bushuyev’s engravings there was a horse with wings (“krylo” in Russian) and that’s why Ivan’s nickname was Krylatko. Since that time a horse appeared on Zlatoust coat-of-arms.
In 1865, Ufimskaya gubernia was formed and Zlatoust received the status of town and became the administrative center of newly formed Zlatoustovsky uyezd (district). It was the second town after Ufa in its importance and population.
From the mid 1920s, in the city there was rapid industrial and civil construction. In 1929, Zlatoust town hospital was put into operation, it was the largest hospital in the Urals at that time. Zlatoust was developing as a metallurgy center. In 1934, Chelyabinsk oblast (region) was formed and Zlatoust became its part.
After the World War II, Zlatoust developed as a metallurgy and machine-building center, the city grew and its population grew twice. New industrial plants were constructed - a sewing factory and a watch-making plant.
Zlatoust is located in the mountainous and forest region in the northwest of Chelyabinsk region. Its north-western part is occupied by National Park “Taganai” - the first National Park formed in the Urals in 1991.
The climate in the city is of continental type - long and snowy winters and cold summers. Average temperature of the coldest month January is 15,4 degrees Celsius below zero and average temperature of the hottest month July is 16,7 degrees C above zero.
Picturesque and unique mountainous landscapes of Zlatoust were marked by a lot of scientists, travelers, writers and artists who visited the city.
Among them are as follows: the great German scientist Alexander Humbolt, the English geologist and the Royal Geographic Society President R.I.Murchison, outstanding Russian scientists P.S.Pallas, A.Ya.Kupfer, E.K.Hoffman, G.P.Gelmerson.
Due to their beauty these places are compared with famous Alps landscapes and called “Russian Switzerland” and “Ural Tirol”.
Zlatoust is located 110 km to the west of the region center - Chelyabinsk (160 km by train) and 1,400 km to the east of the Russian capital Moscow (1,941 km by train). The city is linked with other Russian regions by railway (Moscow - Vladivostok) and has an access to federal highway M5 “Ural” (Moscow - Chelyabinsk).
Zlatoust is one of industrial centers in the Urals (ferrous metallurgy, machine-building, gadget-building, light and food industries).
Among the places of interest of Zlatoust the following monuments can be mentioned:
- Statues to P.P.Anosov and to I.N.Bushuyev;
- Monument to front- and home-front heroes;
- Monument to victims of execution of 1918;
- Monument to sorrowful mother;
- Monument Pegas;
- Nature monument Akhmatovskaya mineral mine (over 30 minerals);
- Mountain Otkliknoy Greben of Great Tanagai mountain range (aventurina deposits).
Zlatoust museum of local study is the oldest in Southern Urals. It was founded in 1825 by a mining engineer P.P.Anosov as a museum of Zlatoust mountainous district. At present it possesses over 44,300 exhibits, among them a rich collection of cold steel and Zlatoust engravings on steel, Kusinsky decorative cast iron pieces, unique samples of Ural minerals.
Lives of a lot of outstanding people of Russia are linked with Zlatoust where the following persons were born: Marshal of the Soviet Union B.M.Shaposhnikov, outstanding sportsmen, the 12th chess world champion A.Ye.Karpov and six times Olympic Games winner L.P.Skoblikova.