Tyumen oblast overview
Tyumen oblast (also spelled Tyumenskaya) stretches from the Arctic Ocean to the boundary with Kazakhstan and divides Russian Federation into two parts: Ural and Siberia. Tyumen oblast is located in Ural Federal District. Administrative center and capital city is Tyumen.
Tyumen oblast population is about 3,400,000 (2009) on the territory of 1,464,200 sq. km.
Tyumen oblast facts, resources
Tyumen oblast is the third largest in Russia after Yakutia and Krasnoyarsky krai.The region occupies most of the West-Siberian lowland and actually divides Russia into 2 large parts: to the west - the Urals and European part of the country, to the east - the Asian part: Siberia and the Far East.
Tyumen oblast has extreme climatic and natural conditions on the most of its part - 90% of its territory refers to areas of the Extreme North or is equal to them. The largest rivers of the oblast are navigable Ob and Irtysh. Most part of the territory (about 43 million hectares) is covered with forests.
The largest part of oil and gas deposits is located in Tyumenskaya oblast. Gas is extracted mainly in the northern regions. Peat, quartz sands and limestone are also extracted. Natural ore deposits and precious stones are found on the eastern slope of the Urals near Polar Circle. Tyumen oblast has rich resources of fresh water presented by large rivers - the Ob, the Irtysh, the Tobol and lakes (about 650,000), underground waters which contain over a half of Russian deposits of iodine and brome.
Tyumen region is the third in forests deposits after Krasnoyarsky krai and Irkutskaya oblast. Total amount of timber is estimated 5,4 billion cubic meters.
Tyumen oblast nature
Tyumen Russia region landscape
Tyumen oblast history
Western Siberia was inhabited by tribes of the Khanty, Mansy, Nenets and Selkup. At the end of 1000 A.C. Turkish tribes came to the south of present Tyumen oblast territory and later they formed an ethnic unit - Siberian Tatars.
In the 14th-15th centuries Siberian khanate was formed. Sibir (Isker) became its capital. Siberian khans held endless wars with Astrakhan khanate and Nogai horde. Russian territories were attacked too. In 1563 Kuchum became the khan. He managed to unite Tatar uluses hostile before and subdue Vogul and Samoyed tribes.
Kuchum planned to force out the Russian population from the Urals area. In order to protect their territories from Tatars the Ural merchants and plants owners Stroganovs hired Yermak Cossack army. In 1582 the Cossacks began attacking Siberian khanate. On October 23rd, 1582, there was the final battle with Kuchum army. During the battle near Chuvashsky cape the khanate forces were defeated. Main Tatar forces were ruined. Yermak expedition opened the way for Russian migration to Siberia.
In 1586 the construction of the stockaded town began on the river Tura. Later it became the first Russian town in Siberia - Tyumen. In 1593-1594 the towns Beryozov and Surgut were founded. As the number of roads to Eastern Siberia grew, there were more Russian cities. From 1590 Tobolsk became the main city of Siberia.
In the 17th century Tobolsk and Tyumen being trade and handicraft cities reached the level of other European Russian cities. From the end of the 17th century the first buildings beyond the Urals made of stone came into being in Tobolsk. The only Kremlin in the eastern part of Russia was constructed in Tobolsk too.
Political exile was the specific feature of Western Siberia. In the second quarter of the 19th century the Decembrists were exiled to Tobolskaya gubernia. Other representatives of liberation movement of Russia - Radishev, F.M.Dostoyevsky, I.V.Petrashevsky and a lot of others - also experienced Tobolsk imprisonment.
In the 18th-19th centuries Tobolsk was the administrative, cultural and spiritual center of Siberia. Tyumen was trade and industrial center. Being located on the crossroads with West and East Tyumen turned into “Siberian gates” of Russia. After serfdom was abolished and during Stolypin agrarian reform migrants from European part of Russia went through Tyumen.
Tyumen oblast views
Tumen region abandoned church
Outstanding personalities in Russian history were born in this gubernia - scientist and chemist D.I.Mendeleyev (Tobolsk), the author of periodical system, P.P.Yershov (Tobolsk) - a poet, fairy-tales narrator, G.Ye.Pasputin (settlement of Pokrovskoye) - the favorite of the last Russian emperor.
In 1917-1918 the family of Nikolai Romanov was under arrest in Tobolsk. They were transferred to Yekaterinburg and shot there. In Soviet time as before revolution the area was an exile, the system of GULAG grew. In 1920-1940s the territory remained mainly agricultural.
After World War II broke out the economy of the region was reformed into military one. Hospitals were located in the oblast. From summer 1941 the body of V.I.Lenin was kept in Tyumen. On August 14th, 1944, Tyumen oblast was formed with the center in Tyumen, Khanty-Mansy and Yamalo-Nenets districts were parts of Tyumenskaya oblast.
In 1964 a new page in the history of Tyumenskaya oblast was opened. “Discovery of the century” - oil and gas deposits were found and they became the basis for forming the oil and gas complex - one of the largest in the world. Oil and gas deposits assimilating absolutely changed the life in Tyumenskaya oblast. New cities were founded - Novy Urengoy, Nadym, Noyabrsk and others.
Within extremely short period Tyumen oblast became the main oil and gas energy basis of the country. The assimilation of natural resources of Tyumenskaya oblast became the whole country’s work. The population of the region grew tens times. Hundreds of thousands people from all the regions of the country came to mine working and compiled a new population of the oblast.
Nowadays Tyumen oblast is the largest in Russia and one of the richest in natural resources regions in the world.
Tyumen oblast economics
Tyumenskaya oblast is the first in Russia in the amount of industrial product. The main industry is fuel, it produces 86% of all the industrial output of the oblast. Considerable part of oil (64%) and gas (91%) in Russian Federation is extracted in Tyumenskaya oblast. The largest oil-processing plant of the country is located in Tobolsk city.
Timber cutting and wood processing industries are also developed. Most part of timber is yet taken unprocessed. Thus, oil and gas deposits of Tyumen oblast favored developing not only powerful oil and gas industries but they also influence development of other industries.
Tyumen oblast has severe climatic conditions. Arable fields are only the 3% of the territory. More favorable conditions in the south enable crops, vegetables and forage growing; favorable conditions for cattle-breeding are provided by large territories of pastures. About 80% of agricultural product of the oblast is produced there. Traditional indigenous peoples’ handicrafts are developed - reindeer breeding and fishing.