Tyumen region overview
Tyumen oblast (region) (also spelled Tyumenskaya) stretches from the Arctic Ocean to the boundary with Kazakhstan and divides the Russian Federation into two parts: Ural and Siberia. The province is located in Ural Federal District. Administrative center and capital city is Tyumen.
Tyumen region population is about 3,510,000 (2012), the territory - 1,464,173 sq. km.
Tyumen region facts, resources
Tyumen province is the third largest region in Russia after Yakutia and Krasnoyarsky krai. The region occupies most of the West-Siberian lowland and actually divides Russia into 2 large parts: to the west - the Urals and European part of the country, to the east - the Asian part: Siberia and the Far East.
The province has extreme climatic and natural conditions on the most of its part - 90% of its territory refers to areas of the Extreme North or is equal to them. The largest rivers of the region, the Ob and the Irtysh, are navigable. Most part of the territory (about 43 million hectares) is covered with forests.
The largest part of oil and natural gas deposits is located in Tyumen region. Natural gas is extracted mainly in the northern regions. Peat, quartz sands and limestone are also extracted. Natural ore deposits and precious stones are found on the eastern slope of the Urals near Polar Circle.
Tyumen region has rich resources of fresh water - the Ob, the Irtysh, the Tobol rivers and lakes (about 650,000), underground waters which contain over a half of the Russian deposits of iodine and brome.
The province is the third in forests deposits after Krasnoyarsk krai and Irkutsk region. Total amount of timber is estimated 5,4 billion cubic meters.
Tyumen region nature
Tyumen region nature view
Tyumen region history
Western Siberia was inhabited by tribes of the Khanty, Mansy, Nenets and Selkup. At the end of 1000 A.C., Turkish tribes came to the south of present Tyumen region territory and later they formed an ethnic unit - the Siberian Tatars.
In the 14th-15th centuries, Siberian khanate was formed. Sibir (Isker) became its capital. Siberian khans held endless wars with Astrakhan khanate and Nogai horde. Russian territories were attacked too. In 1563, Kuchum became the khan. He managed to unite Tatar uluses hostile before and subdue Vogul and Samoyed tribes.
Kuchum planned to force out the Russian population from the Urals area. In order to protect their territories from Tatars, the Ural merchants and plants owners Stroganovs hired Yermak Cossack army.
In 1582, the Cossacks began attacking Siberian khanate. On October 23, 1582, there was the final battle with Kuchum army. During the battle near Chuvashsky Cape, the khanate forces were defeated. Main Tatar forces were ruined. Yermak expedition opened the way for the Russian migration to Siberia.
In 1586, the construction of the stockaded town began on the river Tura. Later, it became the first Russian town in Siberia - Tyumen. In 1593-1594, the towns Beryozov and Surgut were founded. As the number of roads to Eastern Siberia grew, more Russian cities were founded. From 1590, Tobolsk became the main city of Siberia.
In the 17th century, Tobolsk and Tyumen being trade and handicraft cities reached the level of other European Russian cities. From the end of the 17th century, the first buildings beyond the Urals made of stone came into being in Tobolsk. The only Kremlin in the eastern part of Russia was constructed in Tobolsk too.
Political exile was the specific feature of Western Siberia. In the second quarter of the 19th century, the Decembrists were exiled to Tobolsk gubernia. Other representatives of liberation movement of Russia - Radishev, Dostoyevsky, Petrashevsky and a lot of others - also experienced Tobolsk imprisonment.
In the 18th-19th centuries, Tobolsk was the administrative, cultural and spiritual center of Siberia. Tyumen was trade and industrial center. Being located on the crossroads with West and East Tyumen turned into “Siberian gates” of Russia. After serfdom was abolished and during Stolypin agrarian reform migrants from European part of Russia went through Tyumen.
Tyumen region views
Tumen region abandoned church
Outstanding personalities were born in this region - scientist and chemist D.I.Mendeleyev (Tobolsk), the author of periodical system, P.P.Yershov (Tobolsk) - a poet, fairy-tales narrator, G.Ye.Pasputin (settlement of Pokrovskoye) - the favorite of the last Russian Emperor.
In 1917-1918, the family of Nikolai Romanov was under arrest in Tobolsk. They were transferred to Yekaterinburg and shot there. In Soviet time, as before revolution, the area was an exile, part of the GULag. In 1920-1940s, the territory remained mainly agricultural.
After the World War II broke out, the economy of the region was reformed into military one. A lot of hospitals were opened in the region. From summer 1941, the body of Lenin was kept in Tyumen. On August 14, 1944, Tyumen oblast was formed with the center in Tyumen, Khanty-Mansy and Yamalo-Nenets districts were the parts of it.
In 1964, a new page in the history of Tyumen province was opened. “Discovery of the century” - oil and natural gas deposits were found and they became the basis for forming the oil and natural gas complex - one of the largest in the world.
Oil and natural gas deposits assimilating absolutely changed the life in the region. New cities were founded - Novy Urengoy, Nadym, Noyabrsk and others.
Within extremely short period Tyumen province became the main oil and natural gas energy basis of the country. The assimilation of natural resources became the whole country’s work. The population of the region grew tens times. Hundreds of thousands people from all the regions of the USSR came here and compiled a new population of the region.
Nowadays, Tyumen region is the largest in Russia and one of the richest in natural resources regions in the world.
Tyumen region economics
Tyumen province is the first in Russia in the amount of industrial product. The main industry is fuel, it produces 86% of all the industrial output of the region. Considerable part of oil and natural gas in the Russian Federation is extracted here. The largest oil-processing plant of the country is located in Tobolsk.
Timber cutting and wood processing industries are also developed. Most part of timber is yet taken unprocessed. Thus, oil and natural gas deposits of Tyumen region favored developing not only powerful oil and gas industries but they also influence development of other industries.
Tyumen region has severe climatic conditions. Arable fields are only 3% of the territory. More favorable conditions in the south enable crops, vegetables and forage growing; favorable conditions for cattle-breeding are provided by large territories of pastures.
About 80% of agricultural product of the region is produced there. Traditional indigenous peoples’ handicrafts are developed - reindeer breeding and fishing.