Vladimir is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Vladimir region. The city is located on the left bank of the river Klyazma 180 km to the north-east of Moscow. Vladimir is a large transportation juncture on highway (M-7 “Volga”) and railway (Moscow - Nizhny Novgorod).
Vladimir population is about 346,000 (2012), land area - 308 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 4922; postal codes are 600000-600037.
In the past, such names as Vladimit-on-Klyazma and Vladimir-Zalessky were also used, as there was one more ancient city of Vladimir in the South-Western Rus’ - in present Volyn region of Ukraine.
In 1108, Vladimir Monomakh began strengthening the city as it was a bordering city of Rostov-Suzdal prinicipality. Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky made the city more flourishing. He transferred the capital to Vladimir in 1157. In Vladimir and neighboring Suzdal school of painting was founded; there was chronicle writing in the city.
The Tatar-Mongol invasion in 1238 destroyed the city as the center of northern principalities. The invasions kept following and in 1293 the city was absolutely destroyed. In 1299, the town became the residence of Russian metropolitans, political importance of the city intensified for some time and strengthened its status as the capital of Russia.
But by the mid 14th century, it lost its role because of Moscow rising. It was symbolic that metropolitan Pyotr moved to Vladimir in 1328 (during Ivan Kalita’s ruling), and, at the end of the 14th century, the main sanctuary - Vladimir icon of God’s Mother also was brought to Vladimir.
From 1719, Vladimir was a center of a province. In November 1797, the first printing house was opened. In 1804 - a gymnasium was founded and in 1834 - the first gubernia library. From 1838 till 1840, A.I.Hertsen was in exile in Vladimir.
In 1847, a drama theater was founded in the city. In 1861 - a railway Moscow-Vladimir was constructed. In 1862, a museum of local study was founded. On December 5, 1908, the first power station was put into operation.
On January 14, 1929, Vladimir became the part of Ivanovo region, and on August 14, 1944, it received the status of the capital city of Vladimir region. In 1964, a Polytechnic Institute was opened in the city.
Vladimir features and attractions
Vladimir is a part of the Golden Ring of Russia being an acknowledged tourist center. It is the only city in Russia which is connected by local electric trains with 2 Russian cities having underground. If one goes by train from Vladimir, the closest underground station in Moscow is “Novogireyevo”, in Nizhny Novgorod - “Moskovskaya”.
The city is famous for its architectural monuments of Vladimir-Suzdal school of painting: Golden Gates (1158-1164, were reconstructed in the 17th-18th centuries); churches of white stone. Church of Assumption and Dmitriyevsky church together with churches of white stone in Suzdal are among sites of UNESCO’s world heritage.
From 1781, Vladimir was constructed according to a regular plan with buildings in classic style. The pseudo Gothic St. Rosary Catholic church built in 1894 refers to the monuments of the end of the 19th century.
After 1917, an intensive construction has been held, according to general plans of reconstruction (1947 and 1965), new streets, squares and parks were built, a monument for the 850th anniversary of Vladimir was erected. All in all in the city there are 239 buildings of the 17th-19th centuries protected by the state.