Tyumen is a city in Russia, the capital of the Tyumen region, the first Russian city in Siberia. It is located in Western Siberia on the Tura River flowing into the Tobol River. The distance to Moscow is 2,081 km.
The population of Tyumen is about 697,600 (2015), the area - 235 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 3452, the postal codes - 625000-625062.
In the 13th-16th centuries, Chingi-Tura (Chimgi-Tura), the capital of Tyumen khanate, was located on the banks of the Tyumenka River. In 1586, in accordance with the decree of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich, construction of Tyumensky stockaded town began not far from the remains of Chingi-Tura. A large cape was chosen for the fortress, it was protected by ravines and the Tyumenka River from the west and the Tura River from the east.
Tuymen was founded on an ancient caravan route from Central Asia to the Volga River region, on the so called “Tyumen portage”, for which nomads of Southern Siberia were fighting for ages. Waterways connected Tyumen with the Far North and the Far East.
The first inhabitants of Tyumen were boyars, streltsy and Cossacks. It was attacked by Tatars and Kalmyks in the first years of its existence. Gradually, as the military threat diminished, the inhabitants of the town started to learn handicrafts: blacksmithing, tanning, bell making.
More Historical Facts…
In 1695, a fire destroyed the wooden town. This led to the development of stone building. In 1709, Tyumen became a part of the Siberian province. At the beginning of the 18th century, the town was a major transit point for trade (trade routes from China and Siberia). In 1763, the population of Tyumen was 6,593 people. During this period, Tyumen became famous for its tanning factories.
In the 19th century, Tyumen began to develop rapidly while the town of Tobolsk was in decline. Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which passed through the town, particularly contributed to this. Count Constantine Possiet insisted that this railroad should pass through Tyumen, that’s why he was awarded the title of honorary citizen of the town.
In 1836, the first in Siberia steamship was launched in Tyumen. The town became one of Russia’s largest shipbuilding centers. Tanning was the main production in Tyumen in the 19th century. In the second half of the 19th century, there were up to seventy tanneries in the town. Tyumen was also an important center of trade.
In 1912, economic importance of the town increased with the construction of the railroad to Omsk. By the early 20th century, the number of residents of Tyumen reached 30 thousand. Tyumen became the capital of the newly created Tyumen region in 1944. During the Second World War, the local industries grew intensely because of the plants evacuated from the European part of the USSR.
In the 1960s, rich oil and natural gas reserves were discovered in the Tyumen region. Tyumen received another boost to its development at this time as the capital of the oil-producing region. Tyumen became a transit point for the delivery of goods to the North. At this time, new specialized enterprises, institutes, institutions of higher education were opened in the city. In 1966, construction of the railway Tyumen-Tobolsk-Surgut-Nizhnevartovsk began.
Apartment house in Tyumen
Being an administrative and business center of the largest oil- and natural gas-extracting region of the country, Tyumen is informally called the oil and gas capital of Russia.
Tyumen celebrates City Day on the last Saturday of July. The boat on the coat of arms means that the town was the historical starting point for navigation on the rivers of Siberia.
The history of the origin of the name of Tyumen is not clear. Tatar legends bound it with the word “tumen” meaning “ten thousandth army”. In modern language of Tyumen Tatars the word “tyumen” means “lowland”.
The climate is similar to sharply continental. The average temperature in January is minus 15 degrees Celsius, in July - plus 18.8 degrees Celsius.
The headquarters of the following large Russian companies can be found in Tyumen: “Zapsibgazprom”(“Gazprom”), “Lukoil - Western Siberia” (“Lukoil”), “Tyumenneftegaz”, “Sibnefteprovod” (“Transneft”).
The main airport of Tyumen is an international airport “Roshchino” offering regular flights to Moscow, St. Petersburg, Ekaterinburg, Kazan, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Novosibirsk, Rostov-on-Don, Sochi, Surgut, Ufa and a number of other cities. Tyumen is also a railway hub of Sverdlovsky Railway (the Trans-Siberian Railway).
Interesting facts about Tyumen
During the Second World War, the body of Lenin was evacuated from Moscow to Tyumen. During this period, the functions of the mausoleum were fulfilled by the present Tyumen State Agricultural Academy.
In February 1944, Tyumen militia (police) spent two weeks on trapping cats to send them to the Hermitage in Leningrad. During the German siege of the city, the local cats became extinct and the number of mice and rats increased drastically threatening the works of art. 238 cats were sent to the northern capital of the country, where they gave rise to a new population of Leningrad cats.
Tyumen modern architecture
Tyumen places of interest
Not far from the city, there are several hot (37-50 degrees Celsius) geothermal sources that have balneological properties. They are popular among the locals and residents of neighboring regions.
- Fine Arts Museum (Ordzhonikidze Street, 47),
- The Museum Complex named after Ivan Slovtsov (Sovetskaya Street, 63),
- Museum-House of Masharov (Lenina Street, 24),
- Museum-Gallery of Dolls and Toys (Uritskogo Street, 14),
- Museum “Old furniture of Tyumen” (Bolshaya Zarechnaya Street, 41),
- Museum-Estate of Kolokolnikov - the only preserved classic merchant’s manor in Tyumen (Respubliki Street, 20),
- Museum of the History of Siberian Distilling (Melzavodskaya Street, 18),
- Local History Museum “City Council” (Lenina Street, 2),
- Modern Art Gallery (Lunacharskogo Street, 28),
- Archeological Museum-Reserve located on the shore of Lake Andreyevskoye, Yalutorovskiy Highway.
Other sights of Tyumen
- Tyumen Drama Theater - the largest drama theater in Russia (Respubliki Street, 129),
- Tyumen Puppet Theater (Kirova Street, 36),
- Youth Theater “Angagement” named after V.S.Zagoruiko (Olimpiyskaya Street, 8),
- Tyumen Philharmonic (Respubliki Street, 34),
- Embankment of the Tura River,
- Cable-stayed pedestrian bridge known as “The Bridge of Lovers”,
- Siberian Cats Park (Pervomayskaya Street, 11),
- Tyumen Park of Culture and Leisure (Kholodilnaya Street, 83).
Four-star hotels in Tyumen: Mercure Tyumen Center, “Eurasia”, “Remezov”, and “Tyumen”. “Vostok”, a three-star hotel, is the largest hotel in the city. In addition, Tyumen also has several dozens of small hotels, more than ten different budget youth accommodation places (hostels).