Tyumen (also spelled Tumen) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Tyumen region (province). It is the first Russian city in Siberia. The city is located in Western Siberia on the river Tura flowing into the river Tobol. The distance to Moscow is 2,144 km.
Tyumen population is about 609,600 (2012); land area - 235 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 3452; postal codes - 625000-625xxx.
Tyumen is a railway juncture of Sverdlovsky railway (Trans-Siberian railway). There is an international airport “Roshino” near the city. Being an administrative and business center of the largest oil- and gas-extracting region, Tyumen is unofficial “oil and gas capital” of Russia.
There are no exact versions on the name of the city. Tatar legends bound it with the word “tumen” which means a 100,000 army. Also it is possible that the Russian city took the name of old Chimga-Tura which derived from the Ugrian “Chemgen” and meant “a city on the way”.
In the past, it was also considered that the name of the city consisted of two Turkish words “tyu” (belonging to) and “myana” (possession). In modern language of Tyumen Tatars, the word “Tyumen” means “lowland”.
Tyumen streets views
In the 13th-16th centuries, the capital of Tyumen khanate Chingi-Tura (Chimgi-Tura) was located on the banks of the river Tyumenka. The construction of Tyumensky stockaded town was started in July 29, 1586, not far from Chinga-Tura, according to Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich’s decree. A large cape was chosen for the fortress, it was protected with ravines and the river Tyumenka from the west and the river Tura from the east.
Tuymen was founded on an ancient caravan road from Middle Asia to the Volga region, on the so called “Tyumenski portage”, for which nomads of southern Siberia had been fighting for ages. Waterways connected Tyumen with the lands of the Far North and Far East. The original population of the city corresponded to its bordering position.
In the first place among the inhabitants of Tyumen there were boyars, streletses and Cossacks. The city was attacked by Tatars and Kalmyks during the first years. Gradually as the military threat faded, the inhabitants of the city started to learn handicrafts such as blacksmithing, bell making, leather-dressing.
In the 19th century, Tuymen started to develop intensely while the city of Tobolsk was in decay. The constructing of the Trans-Siberian railway through the city was especially favorable for it. Starting with 1918, Tyumen fulfills administrative functions and finally became the capital of newly created Tyumen region in 1944.
During the World War II, the industries of the city grew intensely due to plants evacuated from the European part of the USSR. It is interesting that during this war the body of Lenin was also brought to Tyumen. For this period Mausoleum’s functions were fulfilled by present Tyumen State Agricultural Academy.
After large oil- and gas-fields were explored in Tyumen region in 1960s, city’s life was subordinate to fulfilling functions bound with oil and transportation necessary for Tyumen North needs.
The climate of Tuymen city area is of continental type. Sharp changes of weather are specific. The average temperature in January is -15.4 degrees Celsius with the min of -46 degrees C. The average temperature in July is +18.6 degrees C, with max of +38 degrees C.
Headquarters of large Russian companies are located in the city such as: “Zapsibgazprom”(“Gazprom” company), “Lukoil - Western Siberia” (“Lukoil” company), “Tyumenneftegaz” (business-item “Tyumen”) and the branch of “TNK-BP Management” - “TNK-BP Siberia” (“TNK-BP” company), “Sibnefteprovod” (“Transneft” company).
The main air gate of the city is an international airport “Roshino”. The airport has the status of federal airport and can accept 17 main types of air planes and all the types of helicopters. In 1998, the building of the airport was reconstructed with the international terminal added to it.