Novgorod (also known as Velikiy Novgorod, other spellings Nowgorod, Novogorod, Veliky Novgorod, Velikij Novgorod) is a city located in the northwestern part of European Russia, administrative center of Novgorod oblast, city of military glory.
It is one of the most famous and ancient cities of Russia. Novgorod celebrated its 1150th anniversary in 2009.
Novgorod population is about 220,000 (2012); land area - 90 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 8162; postal codes - 173000-173xxx.
Novgorod is standing on the Volkhov River. Federal highway M10 connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg is going through the city.
The city has the largest number and the most ancient medieval monuments in Russia and Ukraine.
Novgorod Millennium monument
Novgorod is in the list of most ancient Eastern Slavs tribe cities. The settlement was first time mentioned in written chronicles in 859. And that time it was a large trade center on the route from Baltics to Byzantium.
Novgorod ruler Oleg captured Kiev and founded the Kievan Rus state in 882. Novgorod was the second town of the Kievan Rus by cultural, economic and political influence.
One of the most known ruler of Novgorod town was Yaroslav the Wise. His father Vladimir the Great was the ruler of Kiev city that time. First Russian code of laws (part of Russkaya Pravda later) appeared in Novgorod at Yaroslav the Wise time.
Novgorod Republic appeared after the dismissal of prince Vsevolod Mstislavich in 1136. Novgorod Republic was among the largest states of medieval Europe with territories from present time Estonia to Urals Mountains.
The mayor (“posadnik”) of the city, military and other leaders were elected by public assembly of Novgorod called “veche”. Russian folklore hero Sadko was the merchant from this town.
The population of Novgorod was growing fast and soon the city was unable to feed people from its own sources. Novgorod became dependable on grain supply from Vladimir-Suzdal territories. The grain dependence was one of the reasons Moscow state could gain control over the republic and its capital city in 1478. Nikon (Russian most famous patriarch) was the metropolitan of Novgorod in 1648-1652.
The city received the status of Novgorod Governorate (Gyberniya) center of the Russian Empire in 1727. In the period of 1927-1944, it was the part of Leningrad oblast. In 1944, the city became the center of Novgorod oblast.
Novgorod was heavily damaged during the World War II (captured by German army in 1941, liberated by Soviet army in 1944). A lot of monuments of medieval Russia were destroyed.
Main monuments of Novgorod were declared the World Heritage Site. The city received new name “Velikiy Novogorod” after its medieval title “Lord Novgorod the Great” in 1998.